Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
Friederike '''Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt''' ( 1754 – 1832) a oa pedervet merc'h [[Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt]] .
== He buhez ==
Ganet e oa en [[Prenzlau]]. He zad, [[Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt]] (1719–1790) a oa [[landgraf]] [[Hessen-Darmstadt]] hag he mamm, ar gontez [[Henriette Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken|Henriette Karoline]] (1721–1774), a oa merc'h d'an dug [[Christian III von Pfalz-Zweibrücken)|Christian III. von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld]].
 
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Die Prinzessin wurde in Prenzlau geboren, wo ihr Vater in preußischen Diensten stationiert war und wurde von ihrer Mutter, der so genannten “''Großen Landgräfin''”, in [[Bouxwiller (Bas-Rhin)|Buchsweiler]] erzogen. 1772 war sie mit ihrer Mutter und ihren Schwestern [[Wilhelmina Luisa von Hessen-Darmstadt|Wilhelmine]] und [[Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt (1757–1830)|Luise]] nach [[St. Petersburg]] gereist, damit sich der nachmalige Zar [[Paul I. (Russland)|Paul]] sich unter den Schwestern eine Braut aussuchen konnte. Er entschied sich für Wilhelmine.
 
==Dimeziñ ha bugale==
Amalie heiratete am 15. Juli 1774 in [[Darmstadt]] ihren Cousin, den Erbprinzen [[Karl Ludwig von Baden]] (1755–1801). Sie fühlte sich in ihrer badischen Heimat anfangs unwohl. Mit ihrer Tante und Schwiegermutter, der Markgräfin [[Karoline Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt|Karoline Luise]], kam sie nicht sonderlich gut aus. Sie beklagte sich über die Kälte des Markgrafen Karl Friedrich und das kindische Verhalten ihres Gemahls. Außerdem vermisste sie den Glanz und die Würde, die sie zum Beispiel am preußischen und russischen Hof kennengelernt hatte.
Amaliea zimezas d'he c'henderv [[Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden]] on July 15, 1775. He was the son of [[Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden|Margrave Charles Frederick]] (who in 1806, after his father's death, became the 1st Grand Duke of Baden) and Karoline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, the daughter of [[Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt|Ludwig VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt]].
 
Issue:
Nach dem Tod ihrer Schwiegermutter 1783 wurde Amalie die erste Dame am Hof. Nach dem Tod ihres Mannes, 1801, dessen Leiche in einem Kupfersarg von Schweden nach Karlsruhe überführt wurde, ließ Markgraf Karl-Friedrich zum Gedenken an den verstorbenen Erbprinzen 1802 von [[Friedrich Weinbrenner]] eine Kapelle, den sogenannten "gotischen Turm" und ein Badekabinett für Markgräfin Amalie errichten, in dem der Kupfersarg als Badewanne zu Ehren kam<ref>Quelle: Karlsruher Stadtarchiv</ref>. Amalie behielt die Position der ersten Dame bis 1806 bei, als [[Stéphanie de Beauharnais]] ihren Sohn Karl ehelichte. Als Gegnerin von [[Napoléon Bonaparte]] hatte sie versucht, die Hochzeit ihres Sohnes [[Karl Ludwig Friedrich (Baden)|''Karl'' Ludwig Friedrich]] mit Napoleons Nichte und späterer Adoptivtochter Stéphanie zu verhindern. Weder mit ihrer neuen Schwiegertochter noch mit Karl Friedrichs zweiter Gemahlin [[Luise Karoline von Hochberg|Luise von Hochberg]] verstand sie sich, was sie veranlasste, ins [[Schloss Bruchsal]] zu ziehen, das seit 1803 im badischen Besitz war.
* Katharine ''Amalie'' Christiane Luise (July 13, 1776-October 26, 1823)
* [[Caroline of Baden|Friederike ''Karoline'' Wilhelmine]] (July 13, 1776-November 13, 1841) married on March 9, 1797 the then [[Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria|Duke Maximilian of Zweibrücken]] as his second wife (and became grandmother of [[Empress Sisi]]). In 1799 her husband became [[Elector Palatine]] and [[Elector of Bavaria]], and in 1804 [[King of Bavaria]] (her titles accordingly being Duchess, then Electress, then Queen).
* [[Louise of Baden|''Luise'' Marie Auguste]] (January 24, 1779-May 16, 1826) married on October 9, 1793 Tsar [[Alexander I of Russia]].
* [[Frederica of Baden|''Friederike'' Dorothea Wilhelmine]] (March 12, 1781-September 25, 1826) married on October 31, 1797 king [[Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden]]. They divorced in 1812.
* [[Princess Marie of Baden|''Marie'' Elisabeth Wilhelmine]] (September 7, 1782-April 29, 1808) married on November 1, 1802 [[Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick|Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel]].
* Karl Friedrich (September 13, 1784-March 1, 1785)
* [[Karl, Grand Duke of Baden|Karl]], the future 2nd [[Grand Duke of Baden]] (June 8, 1786 in [[Karlsruhe]]-December 8, 1818 in [[Rastatt]])
* [[Wilhelmine of Baden|''Wilhelmine'' Luise]] (September 10, 1788-January 27, 1836) married on June 19, 1804 her first cousin Grand Duke [[Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine|Ludwig II of Hesse]].
 
== Biography ==
Napoleon teilte ihr die ehemalige Residenz der Fürstbischöfe von [[Speyer]] in [[Bruchsal]] –&nbsp;diese war 1803 an [[Baden (Land)|Baden]] gefallen&nbsp;– als Witwensitz zu. Amalie erhielt eine [[Apanage]] von 120.000 Gulden jährlich. Im [[Schloss Rohrbach (Heidelberg)|Schlösschen Rohrbach]] bei Heidelberg hatte sie ihren Sommersitz. Das Schloss war ein Geschenk ihres Schwiegersohnes [[Maximilian I. Joseph (Bayern)|Maximilian von Bayern]]. Hier empfing sie neben Zar Alexander I. und Kaiser [[Franz I. (Österreich)|Franz I.]] auch [[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe]].
Amalie was brought to Saint Petersburg with her mother in 1772 to visit the Russian court as one of the candidates for a marriage with the Russian Crown Prince Paul; Paul, however, decided upon her sister Wilhelmine. during her marriage, she complained about the coldness of the Margrave Karl Friedrich and the childish behavior of her spouse. She also missed the Prussian and Russian courts. She served ceremoniously as the first lady of the court from the death of her mother in law in 1783 until the marriage of her son in 1806. In 1801, she visited her daughter the Russian Empress in Russia with her family, and thereafter her second daughter, the Swedish Queen, in Sweden in September 1801. During her stay in Sweden she was described as witty, intelligent and correct and fully dominated her spouse.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =140
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> They visited [[Drottningholm Palace]] and Gripsholm and Amalie befriended [[Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp]], which was disliked by the King, and reprimanded her daughter about her stiff and unfriendly manners in public.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =145
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> Her spouse died due to an accident before their departure, and she remained in Sweden with her family until May 1802. Shortly before her departure, she was inducted in the secret mystic society of Adolf Boheman,<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =504
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> by him referred to as a branch of the [[Freemasons]].
During her visits in Russia and Sweden she made attempts to reconcile her son-in-laws, the Russian and Swedish monarchs with each other.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =181
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> In 1803, she received the royal Swedish family as guests in Baden, during which it was said that she had the chance to gain influence over her son-in-law, as she was lovable and amusing, had a lively interest in politics and the same views as him.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =275
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> It was said of Amalie that : "The Landgravine of Baden could in power hunger and will force measure up to that of [[Catherine II of Russia|Catherine II]]".<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm
| year = 1936
| page =275
| language = Swedish
| isbn=362103
}}
</ref> As an opponent of Napoleon Bonaparte, she had tried to prevent the wedding of her son to Stéphanie de Beauharnais, and after their wedding in 1806, she retired to her widow estate in Bruchsal. In 1807, Amalie sent her daughter, the Queen Frederica of Sweden, a letter from her second daughter, the Empress of Russia, in an attempt to convince Frederica to use her influence to persuade her spouse to make peace between Sweden and Napoleon, which did not succeed.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag
| year = 1939
| page =108
| language = Swedish
| isbn=412070
}}
</ref><ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag
| year = 1939
| page =502
| language = Swedish
| isbn=412070
}}
</ref>
In 1809, she received her daughter Frederica and her family upon the deposition of her son-in-law from the Swedish throne. In 1811, she tried to persuade Gustav Adolf not to divorce Frederica, but when it proved necessary, she arranged for her daughter's economic independence and the custody of her grandchildren.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag
| year = 1939
| pages =758, 763
| language = Swedish
| isbn=412070
}}
</ref> In 1815, her grandson Gustav of Sweden was referred to as "Prince of Sweden" in an announcement from the Baden court, which caused protests from [[Jean Baptiste Bernadotte]], who believed it to have been instigated by Amalie, as she had a reputation for plotting, in an attempt to secure a throne for her grandson.<ref>
{{cite book
| author = Cecilia af Klercker
| title = Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte)
| publisher = P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag
| page =419
| year = 1942
| language = Swedish
| isbn=412070
}}
</ref> During the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Amalie, by her influence upon her son in law Tsar Alexander I, contributed to the fact that Baden where allowed to remain a Grand Duchy without loss of territory.
 
Amalie Friederike hatte während des Wiener Kongresses durch ihren starken Einfluss auf ihren Schwiegersohn Zar Alexander I. dazu beigetragen, dass das von Napoleon geschaffene Großherzogtum Baden ohne Gebietsverluste erhalten blieb.
 
== He bugale ==
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