Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Izelvroioù spagnol"

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[[Priñselezh Liège]] ne oa ket e-barzh an Izelvroioù spagnol. E dalc'h eskob Liège e oa, ha chom a reas dizalc'h betek [[1795]] pa voe aloubet gant ar C'hallaoued.
 
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The '''Spanish Netherlands''' (Dutch: ''Spaanse Nederlanden'', Spanish: ''Países Bajos españoles'') was a portion of the [[Low Countries]] controlled by [[Spanish Empire|Spain]] from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, inherited from the [[Dukes of Burgundy]]. Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire. They often used the term Burgundy to refer to it (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Circle it was grouped into), until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to the French Republic.
 
When part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule and became the [[Dutch Republic | United Provinces]] in 1581 the remainder of the area became known as the Spanish Netherlands and was still under the control of [[Spain]]. This region comprised modern [[Belgium]], [[Luxembourg]] as well as part of northern France.
 
 
The failing wars intended to regain the 'heretical' Northern Netherlands meant significant loss of (still mainly Catholic) territories in the north, which was consolidated in the 1648 [[Westphalian peace]], and given the peculiar, inferior status of ''[[Generality Lands]]'' (jointly ruled by the United Republic, not admitted as member provinces) : [[Zeeuws-Vlaanderen]] (south of the river [[Scheldt]]), the present Dutch province of [[Noord-Brabant]] and [[Maastricht]] (in the present Dutch province of Limburg).
 
In the wars between the French and the Spanish in the seventeenth century, the territory of the Spanish Netherlands was repeatedly invaded, with portions seized by France. The French annexed [[Artois]] and [[Cambrai]] by the [[Treaty of the Pyrenees]] of 1659, and [[Dunkirk, France|Dunkirk]] was ceded to the English. By the Treaties of [[Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668)|Aix-la-Chapelle]] (ending the [[War of Devolution]] in 1668) and [[Treaty of Nijmegen|Nijmegen]] (ending the [[Franco-Dutch War]] in 1678), further territory up to the current Franco-Belgian border was ceded, including most of [[Walloon Flanders]] (around the city of [[Lille]]), as well as much of [[county of Hainaut|Hainault]] (including [[Valenciennes]]). Later, in the [[War of the Reunions]] and the [[Nine Years' War]], France annexed other parts of the region.
 
 
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==An Izelvroioù spagnol==
Enne e oa:
 
* [[Kontelezh Flandrez]] en he fezh
* [[Kontelezh Artez]]
* Kêr [[Tournai]]
* [[Cambrai]] (dre vras [[departamant gall]] [[Nord (departamant)|Nord]] ha hanterenn hanternoz [[departamant gall]] [[Pas-de-Calais]])
* [[Dugelezh Luxembourg]]
* [[Dugelezh Limburg]]
* [[county of Hainaut]]
* [[county of Namur]]
* [[heerlijkheid]]<sup id="fn_2_back">[[#fn_2|2]]</sup> of [[Mechelen]] (officially a county since 1490)
* [[Dugelezh Brabant]]
* the [[Upper Guelders|Upper Quarter]] (''Bovenkwartier'') of the duchy of [[Guelders]] (around [[Venlo]] and [[Roermond]], e proviñs [[Limburg (Izelvroioù)|Limburg]], ha kêr [[Geldern]] e distrig [[Kleve (distrig)|Kleve]])
en Alamagn.
 
[[Brussel]] en Brabant e oa ar gêrbenn.
 
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In the early seventeenth century, there was a flourishing court at [[Brussels]], which was under the government of King [[Philip III of Spain|Philip III's]] half-sister [[Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain|Archduchess Isabella]] and her husband, [[Archduke Albert of Austria (1559-1621)|Archduke Albert of Austria]]. Among the artists who emerged from the court of the "Archdukes", as they were known, was [[Peter Paul Rubens]]. Under the Archdukes, the Spanish Netherlands actually had formal independence from Spain, but always remained unofficially within the Spanish sphere of influence, and with Albert's death in 1621 they returned to formal Spanish control, although the childless Isabella remained on as Governor until her death in 1633.
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