Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Deiktelezh"

521 okted lamet ,  13 vloaz zo
D
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
(lañs)
 
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{{LabourAChom}}
 
Implijet e vez an termen [[Yezhoniezh|yezhoniel]] '''deiktelezh''' ([[saozneg|saoz.]]: ''deixis'', diwar ar [[gresianeg]]: δειξις "diswel, ober dave") evit komz eus un doare [[ezoforiezh]] pa ra dave elfennoù ulyezh lavarennzo peen ur skrid dad'ur elfennoùgwirvoud er-maez eus atrar skrid, e-unanda metlâret kompreneteo a-drugareze d'anranker anaoudegezhioùkompren boutinda etrebiv anpe hinida abetra gomze hagra andave hiniun elfenn bennak a-drugarez glevd'ar c'henarroud, anvet an ''[[origo]]'', da skouer:
 
P'emañ Yannig o kaozeal, pa implij ar raganv gour "me" emañ oc'h ober dave dezhañ e-unan ("''me''" = "''Yannig''") o vezañ Yannig an ''origo'' en degouezh-mañ, met pa implij Katellig an hevelep termen eo evit ober dave dezhi hec'h-unan ("''me''" = "''Katell''"), Katell o an ''origo'' ar wezh-mañ neuze.
: "Ha klevet az poa ar Prezidant o kaozeal war ar skinwel dec'h da noz?"
 
Seurt gerioù ma rank bezañ komprenet petra eo o ''origo'' (da biv pe da betra e raent dave e degouzh pe degouezh) dre dielfennañ ar c'henarroud kentoc'h evit elfennoù all er skrid e-unan a vez graet "gerioù deiktel" pe "elfennoù deiktel" oute.
Amañ, daoust ha n'emañ ket resisiaat er skrid da beseurt "'''prezidant'''" resis e reer dave, e c'hell bezañ komprenet eus piv ez eus komz a-drugarez d'al lec'h ha d'an amzer ma vez produet ar skrid ha/pe a-drugarez da onaoudegezhioù sevendadurel boutin an hini a brodu ar skrid hag an hini (pe ar re) a resev anezhañ.
 
 
In [[pragmatics]] and [[linguistics]], '''deixis''' ([[Greek language|Greek]]: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning "point of reference" in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a [[Process (computing)|process]] whereby [[word]]s or [[expression]]s rely absolutely on [[context]]. The [[origo]] is the context from which the reference is made —in other words, the viewpoint that must be understood in order to interpret the utterance. (If Tom is speaking and he says "I", he refers to himself, but if he is listening to Betty and she says "I", then the origo is with Betty and the reference is to her.) A word that depends on deictic clues is called a '''deictic''' or a '''deictic word'''. Deixis is a type of [[exophora]].
 
[[Pro-form]]s are generally considered to be deictics, but a finer distinction is often made between [[grammatical person|personal]] pro-forms such as ''I'', ''you'', and ''it'' (commonly referred to as [[personal pronouns]]) and pro-forms that refer to places and times such as ''now'', ''then'', ''here'', ''there''. In most texts, the word ''deictic'' implies the latter but not necessarily the former. (In philosophical logic, the former and latter are collectively called ''indexicals''.)
In the above example, ''this ice'' is not near the speaker in the physical sense, but the deictic doesn't refer to real ice. ''This ice'' refers to the phrase ''ice hidden in unexplored places'', which is conceptually near the speaker in the discourse flow.
 
Meur a doare deiktelezh ez eus, rummataet evel-hen:
== Types of deixis ==
 
*Person deixis: see [[grammatical person]].
*[[Discourse deixis]]: where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. Examples: "see section 8.4", "that was a really mean thing to say", "[[This sentence is false]]". The last is an example of token-reflexive discourse deixis, in which a word in the utterance refers to the utterance itself.
 
*[[Switch reference]] is a type of discourse deixis, and a grammatical feature found in some languages, which indicates whether the argument of one clause is the same as the argument of the previous clause. In some languages this is done through same subject markers and different subject markers. In the translated example "John punched Tom, and left-[same subject marker]," it is John who left, and in "John punched Tom, and left-[different subject marker]," it is Tom who left.
*[[Discourse deixis]]: where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. Examples: "see section 8.4", "that was a really mean thing to say", "[[This sentence is false]]". The last is an example of token-reflexive discourse deixis, in which a word in the utterance refers to the utterance itself.
 
*[[Switch reference]] is a type of discourse deixis, and a grammatical feature found in some languages, which indicates whether the argument of one clause is the same as the argument of the previous clause. In some languages this is done through same subject markers and different subject markers. In the translated example "John punched Tom, and left-[same subject marker]," it is John who left, and in "John punched Tom, and left-[different subject marker]," it is Tom who left.
 
*[[Empathetic deixis]]: where different forms of the deictic are used to indicate the speaker's emotional closeness or distance from the referent.
*[[Place deixis]]: a spatial location relative to the spatial location of the speaker. it can be proximal or distal, or sometimes medial. It can also be either bounded (indicating a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary, e.g. in the box) or unbounded (indicating a spatial region without a clearly defined boundary, e.g. over there)
*[[Social deixis]]: is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing.
*[[Time deixis]]: is reference made to particular times relative to some other time, most currently the time of utterance. For example the use of the words ''now'' or ''soon'', or the use of [[grammatical tense|tense]]s.
 
*[[Social deixis]]: is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing.
 
*[[Time deixis]]: is reference made to particular times relative to some other time, most currently the time of utterance. For example the use of the words ''now'' or ''soon'', or the use of [[grammatical tense|tense]]s.
 
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