Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Deiktelezh"

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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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P'emañ Yannig o kaozeal, pa implij ar raganv gour "me" emañ oc'h ober dave dezhañ e-unan ("''me''" = "''Yannig''") o vezañ Yannig an ''origo'' en degouezh-mañ, met pa implij Katellig an hevelep termen eo evit ober dave dezhi hec'h-unan ("''me''" = "''Katell''"), Katell o an ''origo'' ar wezh-mañ neuze.
 
Seurt gerioù ma rankrankont bezañ komprenet petra eo o ''origo'' (da biv pe da betra e raent dave e degouzh pe degouezh) dre dielfennañ ar c'henarroud kentoc'h evit elfennoù all er skrid e-unan a vez graet "gerioù deiktel" pe "elfennoù deiktel" oute.
 
[[Pro-form]]s are generally considered to be deictics, but a finer distinction is often made between [[grammatical person|personal]] pro-forms such as ''I'', ''you'', and ''it'' (commonly referred to as [[personal pronouns]]) and pro-forms that refer to places and times such as ''now'', ''then'', ''here'', ''there''. In most texts, the word ''deictic'' implies the latter but not necessarily the former. (In philosophical logic, the former and latter are collectively called ''indexicals''.)
Meur a doare deiktelezh ez eus, rummataet evel-hen:
 
*Deiktelezh personel (saoz. ''person deixis''): gwelit [[Gour (yezhadur)|gourioù personel]]
*Person deixis: see [[grammatical person]]
 
*[[DiscourseDeiktelezh deixisprezegennel]] (saoz. ''discourse deixis''): where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. Examples: "see section 8.4", "that was a really mean thing to say", "[[This sentence is false]]". The last is an example of token-reflexive discourse deixis, in which a word in the utterance refers to the utterance itself
 
*[[SwitchDeiktelezh referenceheverk]] (saoz. ''switch reference''): is a type of discourse deixis, and a grammatical feature found in some languages, which indicates whether the argument of one clause is the same as the argument of the previous clause. In some languages this is done through same subject markers and different subject markers. In the translated example "John punched Tom, and left-[same subject marker]," it is John who left, and in "John punched Tom, and left-[different subject marker]," it is Tom who left
 
*[[Deiktelezh kenhoal]] (saoz. ''empathetic deixis''): pa vez implijet elfennoù deiktel evit diskwel pegen tost pe pegen pell en em sant an hini a zo o komz e-keñver an daveenn p'emañ o koaz diwar e benn
*[[Empathetic deixis]]: where different forms of the deictic are used to indicate the speaker's emotional closeness or distance from the referent.
*[[Place deixis]]: a spatial location relative to the spatial location of the speaker. it can be proximal or distal, or sometimes medial. It can also be either bounded (indicating a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary, e.g. in the box) or unbounded (indicating a spatial region without a clearly defined boundary, e.g. over there)
 
*[[Deiktelezh lec'hiañ]] (''spatial deixis''): pa reer dave da lec'hiadur un dra bennak hervez al lec'n m'en em gav an hini a gomz. Seurt elfennoù deiktel a c'hell bezañ a-dost ("''amañ''"), na dost na bell ("''aze''") pe a-bell ("''ahont''"). Bez' e c'hell ''origo'' un elfenn deiktel lec'hiañ bezañ '''''gronnet''''' ([[saozneg|saoz.]]: ''bounded'') pa re dave d'ul lec'hiadur resis, da skouer "er voest", pe '''''amc'hronnet''''' p'emañ dispisoc'h lec'hiadur resis an ''origo'', da skouer "du-hont".
*[[Social deixis]]: is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing
 
*[[SocialDeiktelezh deixissokial]] (sao. ''social deixis''): is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing
*[[Time deixis]]: is reference made to particular times relative to some other time, most currently the time of utterance. For example the use of the words ''now'' or ''soon'', or the use of [[grammatical tense|tense]]s.
 
*[[Deiktelezh amzerel]] (saoz. ''time deixis''): pa reer dave d'ur prantad amzer hag a rank bezañ komprenet c'henarroud elfennoù amzerel all, peurliesañ an amzer p'emeur o komz, da skouer "bremañ", "emberr" hag ivez implij [[Amzer (yezhoniezh)|amzerioù]] ar [[Verb|verboù]]
 
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