Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Deiktelezh"

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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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[[Pro-form]]s are generally considered to be deictics, but a finer distinction is often made between [[grammatical person|personal]] pro-forms such as ''I'', ''you'', and ''it'' (commonly referred to as [[personal pronouns]]) and pro-forms that refer to places and times such as ''now'', ''then'', ''here'', ''there''. In most texts, the word ''deictic'' implies the latter but not necessarily the former. (In philosophical logic, the former and latter are collectively called ''indexicals''.)
 
It is common for languages to show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal, i.e. near or closer to the speaker, and distal, i.e. far from the speaker and/or closer to the [[addressee]]. [[English language|English]] exemplifies this with such pairs as ''this'' and ''that'', ''here'' and ''there'', etc. In other languages the distinction is three-way: proximal, i.e. near the speaker, medial, i.e. near the addressee, and distal, i.e. far from both. This is the case in a few [[Romance language]]s and in [[Korean language|Korean]] and [[Japanese language|Japanese]].
 
Spatial deictics are often reused as [[anaphora (linguistics)|anaphoric]] pro-forms that stand for phrases or propositions (that is, items of discourse, not items of the outside reality). Consider the following statement:
 
:''There may be ice hidden in unexplored places of the Moon. This ice could be useful for future lunar expeditions.''
 
In the above example, ''this ice'' is not near the speaker in the physical sense, but the deictic doesn't refer to real ice. ''This ice'' refers to the phrase ''ice hidden in unexplored places'', which is conceptually near the speaker in the discourse flow.
 
Meur a doare deiktelezh ez eus, rummataet evel-hen:
*[[Deiktelezh kenhoal]] (saoz. ''empathetic deixis''): pa vez implijet elfennoù deiktel evit diskwel pegen tost pe pegen pell en em sant an hini a zo o komz e-keñver an daveenn p'emañ o koaz diwar e benn
 
*[[Deiktelezh lec'hiañ]] (saoz. ''spatial deixis''): pa reer dave da lec'hiadur un dra bennak hervez al lec'n m'en em gav an hini a gomz. Seurt elfennoù deiktel a c'hell bezañ a-dost ("''amañ''"), na dost na bell ("''aze''") pe a-bell ("''ahont''"). Bez' e c'hell ''origo'' un elfenn deiktel lec'hiañ bezañ '''''gronnet''''' ([[saozneg|saoz.]]: ''bounded'') pa re dave d'ul lec'hiadur resis, da skouer "er voest", pe '''''amc'hronnet''''' (saoz. ''unbounded'') p'emañ dispisoc'hdispis lec'hiadur resis an ''origo'', da skouer "du-hont".
 
*[[Deiktelezh sokial]] (saosaoz. ''social deixis''): is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing
 
*[[Deiktelezh amzerel]] (saoz. ''time deixis''): pa reer dave d'ur prantad amzer hag a rank bezañ komprenet c'henarroud elfennoù amzerel all, peurliesañ an amzer p'emeur o komz, da skouer "bremañ", "emberr" hag ivez implij [[Amzer (yezhoniezh)|amzerioù]] ar [[Verb|verboù]]
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