Verb-stagañ : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
DAucun résumé des modifications
DAucun résumé des modifications
Bez' e c'heller isrannañ ar verboù-stagañ hervez o implij resis er frazenn:
* Kevatalader:
*Identity: "I only want to ''be'' myself." "When the area behind the dam fills, it will ''be'' a lake." "The Morning Star ''is'' the Evening Star." "Boys ''will be'' boys."
: "Me eo ar c'helenner"
: "Paotred o doa livet an ti"
* Rummata:
*Class membership. To belong to a set or class: "She could ''be'' married." "Dogs ''are'' canines." "Moscow ''is'' a large city." Depending on one's point of view, all other uses can be considered derivatives of this use, including the following non-copular uses in English, as they all express a [[subset]] relationship.
: "Dimezet e vo"
: "Bronneged eo ar chas"
: "Ur gêr vras eo Roazhon"
* [[Prezegadata]] (saoz. [[:en:Predication|''predication'']]:
*Predication (property and relation attribution): "It hurts to ''be'' blue." "Will that house ''be'' big enough?" "The hen ''is'' next to the cockerel." "I ''am'' confused." Such attributes may also relate to temporary conditions as well as inherent qualities: "I will ''be'' tired after running." "Will you ''be'' going to the play tomorrow?" but please note that a linking verb has nothing to do with these so called "Be"- verbs.(see below)
: "Ha bras a-walc'h e vo an ti?"
: "E-kichen ar c'hi emañ ar c'hazh"
: "Sot eo"
Kemmañ kalz a ra implijoù ha mont-en-dro ar verboù-stagañ haga an elfennoù stagañ all (da skouer [[Lost-ger|lostgerioù]]-stagañ]] a yezh da yezh. Setu un nebeud skouerioù:
* Turkeg
E [[turkeg]] e reer gant ur verb-skoazell ''i-mek'' implijet evel ul [[lostger]] staget ouzh prezegadoù reis, da lâret eo [[Anv-kadarn|anvioù]], [[Anv-gwan|anvioù-gwan]] hag a-wezhoù ivez ouzh [[Kelf (yezhoniezh)|kelfoù]] [[Verb|verboù]] displeget. Pa denn d'an [[Gour (yezhoniezh)|trede gour[[ [[unander]] e reer gant ar [[verb-stagañ mann]] evel e [[ruseg]] pe en [[hungareg]], da skouer:
: <u>Lostger-stagañ</u>
Unlike Indo-European languages, being an extremely regular [[agglutinative language]], [[turkeg]] forms its "being" not as a regular verb, rather as an auxiliary verb denoted as "i-mek" which shows its existence only through suffixes to predicates which can be nouns, adjectives or arguably conjugated verb stems.
:: ''Ben mavi'''yim'''''
:: "me" "glas"+"-on"
:: "Glas on"
<u>Verb-stagañ mann</u>
In the third person singular, just like in Hungarian or Russian, [[zero copula]] is the rule.
:: ''Deniz mavi''
:: "Mor" + "glas"
For example:
:: "Glas eo ar mor"
* ''Deniz mavi.'' = "[The] sea [is] blue" (the auxiliary verb "i-mek" is implied only)
* ''Ben maviyim'' = "I am blue" (the auxiliary verb "i-mek" appears in "(y)im".)
* Sinaeg
| O Bob é velho. || O Bob está velho.
| "Bob is'zo oldkozh." || "Bob has'zo grownarru oldkozh."
| O Bob é parvo. || O Bob está parvo.
| "Bob is'zo sillysot." || "Bob is'zo actingevel sillyunan sot."
| O Bob é bom. || O Bob está bom.
| "Bob is'zo goodun den mat." || "Bob is'zo mat e wellyec'hed."
In certain languages there are not only two copulae but the [[syntax]] is also changed when one is distinguishing between states or situation and essential characteristics. For example, in [[iwerzhoneg]], describing the subject's state or situation typically uses the normal VSO ordering with the verb ''bí''. The copula ''is'', which is used to state essential characteristics or equivalences, requires a change in word order so that the subject does not immediately follow the copula (see [[Irish syntax]]).
$Breton: stumm ampersonel amreizh "zo", boaz: vez/veze, stad: emañ/edo
Er [[yezhoù slavek]] a similar distinction is made by putting a state in the [[instrumental case]], while characteristics are in the [[nominative case|nominative]]. This is used with all the copulas (e.g. "become" is normally used with the instrumental). It also allows the distinction to be made when the copula is omitted (zero copula).
* 本はテーブルにある。''Hon wa tēburu ni aru''. "The book is on a table."
* キムさんはここにいる。''Kimu-san wa koko ni iru''. "Kim is here."
There are several theories as to the origin of ''desu''; one is that it is a shortened form of であります (de arimasu), used sometimes in writing and more formal situations. Another form, でございます (de gozaimasu which is the formal version of であります or である), is also used in some situations and is very polite.
です "desu" may be pronounced っす "ssu" in colloquial speech. In [[Kansai-ben]], the copula is often replaced with ''ya''.
* '''Existential usage'''
*'''Turkish''': ''Düşünüyorum, öyleyse '''varım'''.'' &ndash; ''I think; therefore, '''I am'''''. &mdash; [[Descartes]]
Other languages prefer to keep the existential usage entirely separate from the copula. Swedish,E for example,[[svedeg]] reserves ''vara'' (to be) for the copula, keeping ''bli'' (to become) and ''finnas'' (to exist) for becoming and existing, respectively.da skouer:
*'''Swedish''': ''Vem vill '''bli''' miljonär?'' &mdash; ''Who wants ''to be'' a millionaire?''. &mdash; [[Bengt Magnusson]]
*'''Swedish''': ''Varför bestiga Mt. Everest? Därfor att det '''finns''' där.'' &mdash; ''Why climb Mt. Everest? Because it ''is'' there''. &mdash; [[George Mallory]]
:: ''Vem vill '''bli''' miljonär?''
:: ''Who wants ''to be'' a millionaire?''
:: ''Varför bestiga Mt. Everest?
:: Därfor att det '''finns''' där.''
:: ''Why climb Mt. Everest? Because it ''is'' there''.
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