Verb-stagañ : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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E brezhoneg ez eus ouzhpenn ur stumm ispisial evit merkañ ar boaz "vez/veze" (implijet ivez gant ar veb "kaout") hag evel ar stummoù "emañ/edo" n'hall bezañ implijet nemet en amzer-vremañ hag en amzer-dremenet.
 
Er [[yezhoù slavek]] e verker un diforc'h heñvel ouzh hini "ser" hag "estar" er yezhoù romanek dre implijout an [[Troad (yezhoniezh)|troad benvegel pe instrumentel]] evit diskwel stadoù keit ha ma verker perzhioù gant an [[Nominativel-akuzativel|nominativel]].
Er [[yezhoù slavek]] a similar distinction is made by putting a state in the [[instrumental case]], while characteristics are in the [[nominative case|nominative]]. This is used with all the copulas (e.g. "become" is normally used with the instrumental). It also allows the distinction to be made when the copula is omitted (zero copula).
 
* Jorjieg
Amreizh-tre eo ar verb-stagañ pennañ ''qopna'' e [[jorjieg]] hag implijet e vez [[Gwrizienn (yezhoniezh)|gwriziennoù]] hervez ar [[Mts'k'rivi|mts'k'rivioù]] (pe amzerioù), da skouer:
Just like in English, the verb "to be" (''qopna'') is irregular in [[jorjieg]]; different verb roots are employed in different tenses. The roots -''ar''-, -''kn''-, -''qav''-, and -''qop''- (past participle) are used in the present tense, future tense, past tense and the perfective tenses respectively. Examples:
 
:''Masc'avlebeli v'''ar''''' ("IKelenner ''am'on''' a teacher")
:''Masc'avlebeli vi'''kn'''ebi'' ("IKelenner e ''will be'vin''' a teacher")
:''Masc'avlebeli vi'''qav'''i'' ("I"Kelenner e ''was'oan' a teacher''"")
:''Masc'avlebeli v'''qop'''ilv'''ar''''' ("I"Kelenner ''have'on beenbet'' a teacher'"")
:''Masc'avlebeli v'''qop'''ili'''qav'''i'' ("I"Kelenner e ''had'oan beenbet'' a teacher'"")
 
* Yezhoù siouek
Note that in the last two examples (perfect and pluperfect) two roots are used in one verb compound. In the perfective tense, the root ''qop'' (which is the expected root for the perfective tense) is followed by the root ''ar'', which is the root for the present tense. In the pluperfective tense, again, the root ''qop'' is followed by the past tense root ''qav''.
Er [[yezhoù siouek]] in principle almost all words are verbs. So, not only (transitive, intransitive and so-called 'stative') verbs but even nouns often behave like verbs - and do not need to have copulas, da skouer e [[lakoteg]]:
 
: _wicasa_ [wicha's^a] - man/adult male, to-be-a-man -> wimacasa/winicasa/he wicasa (I am/you are/he is a man).
===Siouan languages===
 
In Siouan languages like [[Lakota]], in principle almost all words - according to their structure - are verbs. So, not very unlike in Lojban (see below), not only (transitive, intransitive and so-called 'stative') verbs but even nouns often behave like verbs - and do not need to have copulas. E.g. _wicasa_ [wicha's^a] - man/adult male, to-be-a-man -> wimacasa/winicasa/he wicasa (I am/you are/he is a man). Yet, there also is a verb (copula) _heca_ [he'cha] (to be a such) that in most cases is used: "wicasa hemaca/henica/heca" (I am/you are/he is a man). So, in order to express that I am a doctor of profession, I have to say: "pezuta wicasa hemaca" [phez^u'ta wicha's^a hema'cha]. But in order to express that I'm THE doctor (say, that had been phoned to help), I'd have to use another copula _(i)ye_ (to be the one): "pezuta wicasa (kin) miye lo" (medicine-man DEF ART I-am-the-one MALE ASSERT).
Yet, there also is a verb (copula) _heca_ [he'cha] (to be a such) that in most cases is used:
 
: "wicasa hemaca/henica/heca" (I am/you are/he is a man).
 
So, in order to express that I am a doctor of profession, I have to say:
 
: "pezuta wicasa hemaca".
 
But in order to express that I'm THE doctor (say, that had been phoned to help), I'd have to use another copula _(i)ye_ (to be the one):
 
: "pezuta wicasa (kin) miye lo" (medicine-man DEF ART I-am-the-one MALE ASSERT).
 
In order to refer to space (e.g. Robert is in the house), various verbs are used as copula, e.g. _yankA_ [yaNka'] (lit.: to sit) for humans, _han/he_ [haN'/he'] (to stand upright) for inanimates of a certain shape. So, "Robert is in the house" could be translated as "Robert timahel yanke (yelo)", whereas "there's one restaurant next to the gas station" translates as "owotetipi wigli-oinazin kin hel isakib wanzi he".
 
: "Robert timahel yanke (yelo)"
: "Robert is in the house"
: "owotetipi wigli-oinazin kin hel isakib wanzi he".
: "there's one restaurant next to the gas station"
 
In order to refer to space (e.g. Robert is in the house), various verbs are used as copula, e.g. _yankA_ [yaNka'] (lit.: to sit) for humans, _han/he_ [haN'/he'] (to stand upright) for inanimates of a certain shape. So, "Robert is in the house" could be translated as "Robert timahel yanke (yelo)", whereas "there's one restaurant next to the gas station" translates as "owotetipi wigli-oinazin kin hel isakib wanzi he".
 
* Japaneg
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