Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Bonn"

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:[[Skeudenn:Meurastumm.png]] ''M'emaoc'h o klask '''Bonn''', ur gumun eus ar Vande e Geunioù Breizh, gwelit [[Bonn (Vande)|amañ]].''
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[[Skeudenn:Uno HQ Langer Eugen.jpg|thumb|Langer Eugen, Campus kreizenn ar [[Broadoù Unanet]] (gwelet eus ar Rheinaue parkPark).]]
'''Bonn''' eo an naontekvet kêr vrasañ en [[Alamagn]]. Emañ 20 kilometr er c'hreisteiz da g-[[Köln]], war lez ar [[Roen]] e Stad kevreadel [[Nordrhein-Westfalen]]. Kêr-benn [[Alamagn ar C'hornôg]] etre 1949 ha 1990 ha sez ofisiel ar gouarnamant betek 1999. Adalek 1998, kalz ensavadurioù broadel eus ar gouarnamant a oa kaset eus Bonn da [[Berlin|Verlin]]. Sez Parlamant Broadel Alamagn, ar [[Bundestag]] koulz hag ar [[Bundesrat Alamagn|Bundesrat]], a oa kaset gant ar c'hañsellerezh hag annez penn Stad Alamagn, ar Bundespräsident.
 
==Tud vrudet==
'''Bonn''' eo an naontekvet kêr vrasañ en [[Alamagn]]. Emañ 20 kilometr er c'hreisteiz da g-[[Köln]] war lez ar [[Roen]] e Stad kevredadel [[Nordrhein-Westfalen]]. Kêrbenn [[Alamagn ar C'hornôg]] etre 1949 ha 1990 ha sez ofisiel ar gouarnamant betek 1999. Adalek 1998, kalz ensavadurioù broadel eus ar gouarnamant a oa kaset eus Bonn da [[Berlin|Verlin]]. Sez Parlamant Broadel Alamagn, ar [[Bundestag]] koulz hag ar [[Bundesrat Alamagn|Bundesrat]], a oa kaset gant ar c'hañsellerezh hag annez penn Stad Alamagn, ar Bundespräsident.
===Tud ganet eno===
 
*[[Ludwig van Beethoven]], sonaozour
<!-- Bonn remains a centre of politics and administration, however. Roughly half of all government jobs were retained as many government departments remained in Bonn and numerous sub-ministerial level government agencies relocated to the former capital from Berlin and other parts of Germany. In recognition of this, the former capital now holds the title of [[Federal City]] ("Bundesstadt").
===Tud marvet eno===
 
*[[Leo Weisgerber]], keltiegour
Bonn has developed into a hub of international cooperation in particular in the area of environment and sustainable development. In addition to a number of other international organizations and institutions, such as, for instance, the [[World Conservation Union|IUCN]] Environmental Law Center (IUCN ELC) the City currently hosts 16 [[United Nations]] institutions. Among these are two of the so-called Rio Conventions, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ([[UNFCCC]]) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ([[UNCCD]]). The number of UN agencies in Bonn, most of which are based at the newly established United Nations Campus in the city's former parliamentary quarter on the banks of the Rhine, continues to grow.
 
Bonn is the seat of some of Germany's largest corporate players, chiefly in the areas of telecommunications and logistics. Simultaneously, Bonn is establishing itself as an important national and international centre of meetings, conventions and conferences, many of which are directly related to the work of the United Nations. A new conference centre capable of hosting thousands of participants is currently under construction in the immediate vicinity of the UN Campus.
 
From 1597 to 1794 it was the residence of the [[Electorate of Cologne|Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne]], and is the birthplace of [[Ludwig van Beethoven]] (born 1770), widely considered to be one of the world's greatest composers.
 
==History==
{{Unreferencedsection|date=February 2008}}
{{wrapper}}
|[[Image:Bonn Langer Eugen.jpg|thumb|Langer Eugen, centre of the [[United Nations]] Campus (view from the Rheinaue park).]]
|-
|[[Image:Bonn old ruins.jpg|thumb|Sterntor Monument]]
|-
|[[Image:BNRATHAU.jpg|thumb|Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square).]]
|}
 
The history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 11 BC, the [[Roman army|Roman Army]] appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the town. Even earlier, the Army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the [[Ubii]], in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the [[Eburones|Eburoni]]. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of [[Julius Caesar|Caesar]]'s [[Gallic Wars|War in Gaul]]. After several decades, the Army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement. During the [[1st century]] AD, the Army then chose a site to the North of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed [[Castra]] Bonnensis, i.e., literally, "Fort Bonn". Initially built from wood, the fort was eventually rebuilt in stone. With additions, changes and new construction, the fort remained in use by the Army into the waning days of the [[Western Roman Empire]], possibly the mid-[[5th century]] AD. The structures themselves remained standing well into the [[Middle Ages]], when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by [[List of Frankish Kings|Frankish kings]] until they fell in disuse. Eventually, much of the building materials seem to have been reused in the construction of Bonn's [[13th century]] [[city wall]]. The Sterntor Monument in the center of town contains parts of the medieval city wall.
 
To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the [[ancient world]], i.e. a fort built for one full-size [[Imperial Legion]] and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of approximately 250,000 square meters. Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' houses to [[barracks]], [[stables]] and a [[military jail]]. Among the legions stationed in Bonn, the "1st", i.e. the Prima Legio Minervia, seems to have served here the longest. Units of the Bonn legion were deployed to theaters of wars ranging from modern-day [[Algeria]] to what is now the Russian republic of [[Chechnya]].
 
The chief [[Roman road]] linking the provincial capitals of [[Cologne]] and [[Mainz]] cut right through the fort where it joined the fort's main road (now, Römerstraße). Once past the South Gate, the Cologne-Mainz road continued along what are now streets named Belderberg, Adenauerallee et al. To both sides of the road, the local settlement, Bonna, grew into a sizeable Roman town.
 
In late antiquity, much of the town seems to have been destroyed by marauding invaders. The remaining civilian population then holed up inside the fort along with the remnants of the troops stationed here. During the final decades of imperial rule, the troops were supplied by [[Germanic chieftain]]s employed by the Roman administration. When the end came, these troops simply shifted their allegiances to the new barbarian rulers. From the fort, the Bonnburg, as well as from a new, medieval settlement to the South centred around what later became the [[Bonn Minster|Münster basilica]], grew the medieval city of Bonn.
 
Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the [[Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] style Bonn Minster was built, and in 1597 Bonn became the seat of the [[Archdiocese]] of Cologne. The town gained more influence and grew considerably. The [[Electorate of Cologne|elector]] [[Klemens August of Bavaria|Clemens August]] (ruled 1723-1761) ordered the construction of a series of [[Baroque]] buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Max Franz (ruled 1784-1794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of [[Bad Godesberg]]. In addition he was a patron of the young [[Ludwig van Beethoven]], who was born in Bonn in 1770; the elector financed the composer's first journey to [[Vienna]].
 
In 1794, the town was seized by [[France|French]] troops, becoming a part of the [[First French Empire]]. In 1815 following the [[Napoleonic Wars]], Bonn became part of the [[Kingdom of Prussia]]. Administered within the Prussian [[Rhine Province]], the town became part of the [[German Empire]] in 1871 during the Prussian-led [[unification of Germany]]. Bonn was of little relevance in these years.
 
During [[World War II]], Bonn was a Military Sub-area (Militärische Unterregion) of the [[Cologne]] Military Area Command (Militärischer Bereich Befehl). It was not a headquarters, and no units called Bonn home, but it did have some military significance due to its population.
 
Following World War II Bonn was in the [[United Kingdom|British]] zone of occupation, and in 1949 became the provisional capital of [[West Germany]]. The choice of Bonn was made mainly due to the advocacy of [[Konrad Adenauer]], a former [[Cologne]] Mayor and Chancellor of West Germany after World War II, who came from that area, despite the fact that [[Frankfurt]] had most of the needed facilities already and using Bonn was estimated to be 95 Mill DM more expensive than using Frankfurt. Because of its relatively small size for a capital city, Bonn was sometimes referred to, jokingly, as the ''Bundesdorf'' (Federal Village).
 
[[German reunification]] in 1990 made [[Berlin]] the nominal capital of Germany again. This decision did not mandate that the republic's political institutions would also move. This was only concluded by the ''[[Bundestag]]'' (Germany's parliament) on [[20 June]] [[1991]], after a heated debate. While the government and parliament moved, as a compromise, some of the ministries largely remained in Bonn, with only the top officials in Berlin. There was no plan to move these departments, and so Bonn remained a second, unofficial capital with the new title "Federal City" (Bundesstadt). Because of the necessary construction work, the move took until 1999 to complete.
 
At present, the private sector plays a major role in Bonn's economy. With 5 stock listed companies, Bonn has the 4th highest market capitalisation amongst German towns. With headquarters of DHL, T-Mobile and other renowned companies, managers have replaced the public sector.
 
The [[University of Bonn]] has about 30,000 students.
 
{{wide image|General view over bonn.jpg|1200px|View over downtown Bonn}}
 
==Main sights==
{{wrapper}}
|[[Image:Godesburg 2 db.jpg|thumb|right|Godesburg Fortress.]]
|-
|[[Image:Bonn Hofgarten.jpg|thumb|Hofgarten (Court Garden) with Kurfürstliches Schloss (Electoral Prince's Castle), which serves as the main building of the [[University of Bonn]]. The church steeple of the [[Bonn Minster]] can be seen in the background.]]
|-
|[[Image:Posttower Bonn 001.jpg|thumb|right|Post Tower, headquarters of the [[Deutsche Post]] AG and [[DHL]].]]
|}
 
Beethoven's birth place is located at Bonngasse. Next to the market place is the Old Town Hall, built in 1737 in [[Rococo]] style, under the rule of [[Clemens August of Bavaria]]. It's used for receptions of guests of the town, and as a bureau for the mayor. Nearby is the ''Kurfürstliches Schloss'', built as a residence for the prince-elector and now the main building of the [[University of Bonn]].
 
The ''Poppelsdorfer Allee'', an alley flanked by [[Chestnut|chestnut trees]], connects the ''Kurfürstliches Schloss'' with the ''Poppelsdorfer Schloss'', a palace that was built as a resort to prince-electors in the first half of the 18th century. This axis is interrupted by a railway line and Bonn Central Station, a building erected in 1883/84.
 
The three highest buildings in the city are the [[Radio masts and towers|radio mast]] of [[Westdeutscher Rundfunk|WDR]] in Bonn-Venusberg (180&nbsp;m), the headquarters of the [[Deutsche Post]] called ''[[Post Tower]]'' (162.5&nbsp;m) and the former building for the German members of parliament ''[[Langer Eugen]]'' (114.7&nbsp;m) now the new location of the [[United Nations|UN]]-Campus.
 
=== Churches ===
* [[Bonn Minster]] [http://www.bonner-muenster.de/basilika/index_engl.htm]
* Doppelkirche ([[Double Church]]) Schwarzrheindorf built in 1151 [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Clemens_%28Schwarzrheindorf%29]
* [[Old Cemetery Bonn]], one of the best known ones in Germany [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alter_Friedhof_Bonn]
 
=== Castles and residences ===
* [[Godesburg]] fortress ruins [http://www.bonn-region.de/ns/articleview_en.php?folderID=10204&sub_folderID=10215&articleID=623][http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godesburg]
 
=== Modern buildings ===
* [[Bundesviertel]] (federal quarter) with lots of government structures including
** Post Tower, the tallest building in the state [[North Rhine-Westphalia]], housing the headquarters of the [[Deutsche Post]] AG
** [[Deutsche Telekom]] headquarters
** [[T-Mobile]] headquarters
** Maritim Bonn, 5 star hotel and convention centre
** [[Schürmann-Bau]], headquarters of [[Deutsche Welle]]
** Langer Eugen, since 2006 the centre of the United Nations Campus, formerly housing the offices of the members of the German parliament
 
=== Museums ===
* Museum Mile with
** [[Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland]] (Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany) showing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation|Guggenheim Collection]] in 2006-2007 [http://www.kah-bonn.de/index_e.htm]
** [[Kunstmuseum Bonn]] (Bonn Museum of Modern Art) [http://kunstmuseum.bonn.de/start_e.htm]
** [[Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland]] (Museum of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany) [http://www.hdg.de/index.php?id=1&L=1]
** [[Museum Koenig]] where the [[Parlamentarischer Rat]] first met [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_Koenig]
* [[Beethoven House]], birthplace of [[Ludwig van Beethoven]] [http://www.beethoven-haus-bonn.de/sixcms/detail.php//portal_en]
* Ägyptisches Museum (Egyptian Museum) [http://www.uni-bonn.de/en/The_University/Museums_and_Academic_Collections/Egyptian_Museum.html]
* Akademisches Kunstmuseum (Academic Museum of Art) [http://www.uni-bonn.de/Die_Universitaet/Museen/Antikensammlung.html]
* [[Arithmeum]], research institute for discrete mathematics including a museum [http://www.arithmeum.uni-bonn.de/en/home/]
* [[Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn]] (Rhinish Regional Museum Bonn) [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheinisches_Landesmuseum_Bonn]
 
=== Nature ===
* Botanischer Garten (Botanical Garden), where [[Titan arum]] reached a world record [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botanischer_Garten_Bonn]
* [[Rheinaue (Bonn)]], a leisure park on the banks of the Rhine [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freizeitpark_Rheinaue]
* Rhine promenade and the ''Alter Zoll'' (Old Toll Station)
* In the very south of the city on the border to [[Wachtberg]] and [[Rhineland-Palatinate]] is the extinct [[volcano]] [[Rodderberg]]
 
== Education ==
 
The Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn ([[University of Bonn]]) is one of the largest universities in Germany.
 
=== Schools ===
* [[Aloisiuskolleg]], a [[Jesuit]] [[private school]] in [[Bad Godesberg]]
* Amos-Comenius-Gymnasium, a [[private school]] in [[Bad Godesberg]]
* King Fahad Academy, a [[private school]] in [[Bad Godesberg]], Mehlem, which also includes a mosque
* Bonn International School BIS, a private English-speaking school in Plittersdorf/Rheinaue, which offers grades from Kindergarten to 12th grade (International Baccalaureate)
* Nicolaus Cusanus Gymnasium, a school offering parts of the curriculum in English to some classes. It is paired with [[Rathmore Grammar School]]
 
==Districts==
{{wrapper}}
|[[Image:Bonn Stadtbezirke.png|thumb|right|200px|Districts of Bonn.]]
|-
|[[Image:Bonn Stadthaus.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Bonn City Hall, called "Stadthaus".]]
|-
|[[Image:Karneval Bonn 2006.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Carnival in Bonn.]]
|-
|[[Image:Beethoveen monument at Bonn.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Beethoven Monument.]]
|-
|[[Image:BEETHHS.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Beethovenhaus in Bonn, birthplace of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.]]
|-
|[[Image:Beethoven Sign.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Conmemorative sign]]
|-
|[[Image:BeethovenPiano hb.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Beethoven's Pianos in the Beethoven-Haus. [[Stieler]]'s famous portrait hangs on the wall.]]
|}
 
In 1969, the independent towns of [[Bad Godesberg]] and [[Beuel]] as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. Bad Godesberg and Beuel became districts (''Stadtbezirke'') of Bonn with some independence and populations of about 70,000 each.
 
Each district has its own quarters:
* '''[[Bad Godesberg]]''': Alt-Godesberg, Friesdorf, Godesberg-Nord, Godesberg-Villenviertel, Heiderhof, Hochkreuz, Lannesdorf, Mehlem, Muffendorf, Pennenfeld, Plittersdorf, Rüngsdorf, Schweinheim
* '''[[Beuel]]''': Beuel-Mitte, Beuel-Ost, Geislar, Hoholz, Holtorf, [[Holzlar]], Küdinghoven, Limperich, [[Oberkassel]], Pützchen/Bechlinghoven, Ramersdorf, Schwarzrheindorf/Vilich-Rheindorf, Vilich, Vilich-Müldorf
* '''Bonn''': Auerberg, Bonn-Castell ''(until 2003: Bonn-Nord)'', Bonn-Zentrum, Buschdorf, Dottendorf, Dransdorf, [[Endenich]], Graurheindorf, Gronau, Ippendorf, Kessenich, Lessenich/Meßdorf, Nordstadt, Poppelsdorf, Röttgen, Südstadt, [[Tannenbusch]], Ückesdorf, Venusberg, Weststadt
* '''[[Hardtberg]]''': Brüser Berg, Duisdorf, [[Hardthöhe]], Lengsdorf
 
== Transport ==
Bonn is connected to three [[autobahn]]s (federal motorways) and the [[Deutsche Bahn|German rail]] network. Some [[InterCityExpress]] and most [[InterCity]] trains call at [[Bonn Hauptbahnhof]] whilst the [[Siegburg/Bonn railway station]] is situated on the [[Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line]] outside of Bonn and serviced by [[InterCityExpress]] trains. Local transport is provided by a [[Stadtbahn]] (light rail), which also features two lines to [[Cologne]]. Bonn's international airport is [[Cologne Bonn Airport]] with connections to many European cities and a few countries outside Europe, like [[Iran]] and the [[United States]].
 
== Nightlife ==
Since Bonn is a popular University town it has an unusual vivid nightlife compared to other cities of the same size. There are many bars and pubs all over the city, including several Irish pubs. Most of them are located around the town's center near the university. Bonn also holds a large number of recommendable restaurants which serve national specialities from all over the world.
Furthermore Bonn has one [[opera]], 12 theatres and 6 cinemas.
 
== Twin towns ==
Since 1983, the City of Bonn has established friendship relations with the City of [[Tel Aviv-Jaffa]], [[Israel]], and since 1988 Bonn, in former times the residence of the Princes Electors of Cologne, and [[Potsdam]], [[Germany]], the formerly most important residential city of the Prussian rulers, have established a city-to-city partnership.
 
Downtown Bonn is surrounded by a number of traditional towns and villages which were independent up to several decades ago. As many of those communities had already established their own contacts and partnerships before the regional and local reorganisation in 1969, the Federal City of Bonn now has a dense network of city district partnerships with European partner towns.
 
The city district of Bonn is a partner of the English university city of [[Oxford]], [[England]], [[United Kingdom|UK]] (since 1947), of [[Budafok]], District XXII of [[Budapest]], [[Hungary]] (since 1991) and of [[Opole]], [[Poland]] (officially since 1997; contacts were established 1954).
 
The district of Bad Godesberg has established partnerships with [[Saint-Cloud]] in [[France]], [[Frascati]] in [[Italy]], [[Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead|Windsor and Maidenhead]] in [[England]], [[United Kingdom|UK]] and [[Kortrijk]] in [[Belgium]]; a friendship agreement has been signed with the town of [[Yalova]], [[Turkey]].
 
The district of Beuel on the right bank of the Rhine and the city district of Hardtberg foster partnerships with towns in [[France]]: [[Mirecourt]] and [[Villemomble]].
 
Moreover, the city of Bonn has developed a concept of international co-operation and maintains sustainability oriented project partnerships in addition to traditional city twinning, among others with [[Minsk]] in [[Belarus]], [[Ulan Baatar]] in [[Mongolia]], [[Bukhara]] in [[Usbekistan]], [[Chengdu]] in [[China]] and [[La Paz]] in [[Bolivia]].
 
==Famous Denizens==
*[[Ludwig van Beethoven]] (* born December 17, 1770; died March 26, 1827 in [[Vienna]]) composer and virtuoso pianist
*[[Bushido (rapper)]] (born September 28, 1978 as Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) rapper
*[[Sonja Fuss]] (* born November 5, 1978) football defender, plays for [[Germany women's national football team]]
*[[Johannes B. Kerner]] (born December 9, 1964) TV presenter
*[[Johanna Kinkel]] (* born July 8, 1810; died November 15, 1858 in [[London]]) composer and writer
*[[Karlrobert Kreiten]] (born June 26, 1916; murdered by the Nazis September 7, 1943 Berlin-Ploetzensee) noted pianist
*[[Peter Joseph Lenné]] (* born September 29, 1789; died January 23, 1866) gardener and landscape architect
*[[Thomas de Maizière]] (born January 21, 1954) politician
*[[Norman Rentrop]] (born 1957) publisher, author and investor
*[[Heide Simonis]] (* born July 4, 1943 as Heide Steinhardt) politician [[SPD]]
*[[Roger Willemsen]] (born August 15, 1955) author, essayist and TV presenter
 
Desmond Dawson born 21 Oct 1959, kilted bungee jumper and marathon runner AKA " The Flying Scotsman for Children in Need" -->
 
== Liammoù diavaez ==
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