Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Kleopatra VII"

33 264 okted lamet ,  6 vloaz zo
(Liamm resisoc'h)
Goude drouklazh [[Julius Caesar]] e 44 kent JK, e enebas gant [[Marcus Antonius]] ouzh hêr Caesar diouzh al lezenn, [[Augustus|Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus]] (anvet diwezhatoc'h [[Augustus]]). Bet he doe gevelled gant [[Marcus Antonius]], [[Kleopatra Selene II]] hag [[Aleksandr Helios]], hag ur mab all, [[Ptolemaios Filadelfos (Kleopatra)|Ptolemaios Filadelfos]]. Goude bezañ bet trec'het en [[emgann Actium]] gant armeoù Octavianus, Marcus Antonius en em lazhas. Kleopatra en em bersekutas ivez war e lerc'h, flemmet gant un [[naer egiptat|naer]] hervez an hengoun, d'an 12 a viz Eost 30 kent JK.<ref>"[http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/biography/cleopatra.html Who Was Cleopatra?]", p 2, ''Smithsonian Magazine''</ref> He mab [[Caesarion]], a oa anvet faraon war lerc'h he marv gant e harperien, met drouklazhet e oa war urzh Octavianus. He rouantelezh a zeuas da vezañ proviñs roman Egipt.
Betek hiziv an deiz eo chomet brudet Kleopatra e sevenadur ar C'hornôg. Bevañ a ra c'hoazh he c'houn en oberennoù arz niverus. Gallout a reer menegiñ trajedienn [[William Shakespeare]] ''[[Anton ha Kleopatra]]'', opera [[Jules Massenet]], ''[[Cléopâtre]]'', ha film 1963 ''[[Cleopatra (1963 film)|Cleopatra]]''. E kalz deskrivadurioù e tiskouezer Kleopatra evel un dekenn, hag he darempredoù gant ar wazed c'halloudusañ eus ar bed en hec'h amzer zo kemeret evel prouennoù eus he c'hened. En e ''[[Pensées]]'' ec'h embann [[Blaise Pascal]] e oa kemmet istor ar bed gant he c'hened: "Fri Kleopatra, ma vije bet berroc'h, dremm ar bed a-bezh a vije bet cheñchet."<ref>''[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/miscellanea/cleopatra/bust.html|title The Beauty of Cleopatra]'', University of Chicago</ref>
Betek hiziv an deiz eo chomet brudet Kleopatra e sevenadur ar C'hornôg. Bevañ a ra c'hoazh he c'houn en oberennoù arz niverus. Gallout a reer menegiñ trajedienn [[William Shakespeare]] ''[[Anton ha Kleopatra]]'', opera [[Jules Massenet]], ''[[Cléopâtre]]','ha film 1963 ''[[Cleopatra (1963 film)|Cleopatra]]''. E kalz deskrivadurioù e tiskouezer Kleopatra evel un dekenn, hag he darempredoù gant ar wazed c'halloudusañ eus ar bed en he amzer zo kemeret evel prouennoù eus he c'hened. En e ''[[Pensées]]'' e ambann [[Blaise Pascal]] e oa kemmet istor ar bed gant he c'hened : "Fri Kleopatra, ma vije bet berroc'h, dremm ar bed a-bezh a vije bet cheñchet."<ref>''[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/miscellanea/cleopatra/bust.html|title The Beauty of Cleopatra]'', University of Chicago</ref>
===Accession to the throne===
The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be [[Cleopatra V of Egypt|Cleopatra V Tryphaena]] of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.<ref>The German historian Werner Huß (''Die Herkunft der Kleopatra Philopator'' (''The descent of Cleopatra Philopator''), Aegyptus 70, 1990, pp. 191–203) assumes instead that Cleopatra's mother was a high born Egyptian woman, who possibly had become the second wife of Ptolemy XII after he had repudiated Cleopatra V.</ref> Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of [[Alexander the Great]]'s general, [[Ptolemy I Soter]], son of [[Arsinoe of Macedon|Arsinoe]] and [[Lagus]], both of [[Macedon]].
{{Infobox hieroglyphs |title = Cleopatra VII
| name = <hiero>q:rw-i-wA-p-A-d:r-t-A-H8</hiero>
| name transcription = Cleopatra<br />''Qlwpdrt''
|name in cartouche = yes
|name2 = <hiero>wr:r-nb-nfr-nfr-nfr-H2:x-O22</hiero>
|name2 in Serekh = yes
|name2 Serekh symbol = <hiero>G5</hiero>
|name2 determinative =
|name2 transcription =
|name2 explanation = '''[[Horus name]] (1):''' Wer(et)-neb(et)-neferu-achet-seh<br />''{{Unicode|Wr(.t)-nb(.t)-nfrw-3ḫ(t)-sḥ}}''<br /> ''The great Lady of perfection, excellent in counsel''
|name3= <hiero>wr*t:r-t:W:t-A53-n:X2*t:z</hiero>
|name3 in Serekh = yes
|name3 Serekh symbol = <hiero>G5</hiero>
|name3 determinative =
|name3 transcription =
|name3 explanation ='''Horus name (2):''' Weret-tut-en-it-es<br />''Wr.t-twt-n-jt=s''<br /> ''The great one, sacred image of her father''
|name4 = <hiero>q:rw-W:p-d:r:t*H8-nTr-t:H8-R7:t-z:N36</hiero>
|name4 cartouche symbol =
|name4 in cartouche = yes
|name4 determinative =
|name4 transcription = Cleopatra netjeret mer(et) ites<br />''Qlwpdrt {{Unicode|nṯrt}} mr(t) jts''<br />''The goddess Cleopatra who is beloved of her father''
|image1 = Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg
|image1 description = Marble bust of Cleopatra VII
[[Centralized government|Centralization of power]] and [[Political corruption|corruption]] led to uprisings in and the losses of [[Cyprus]] and [[Cyrenaica]], making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, [[Cleopatra VI Tryphaena]] seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that [[Berenice IV]] poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in [[55 BC]], with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general [[Aulus Gabinius]]. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited.
[[Ptolemy XII]] died in March 51&nbsp;BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old [[Ptolemy XIII]] joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the [[Nile]], and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him.
In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the [[Gabiniani]], powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes of Cleopatra's fall from power shortly afterward.
The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the [[eunuch]] [[Pothinus]], removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48&nbsp;BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51&nbsp;BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around [[Pelusium]], but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, [[Arsinoe IV|Arsinoë]].<ref>{{Citation | title=Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age | author=Peter Green | year=1990 |pages=661–664 | isbn=0-520-05611-6 | location= Berkeley | publisher=University of California Press | authorlink= Peter Green (historian)}}</ref>
===Relations with Rome===
====Assassination of Pompey====
While Cleopatra was in exile, [[Pompey]] became embroiled in the [[Caesar's civil war|Roman civil war]]. In the autumn of 48&nbsp;BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Caesar to [[Alexandria]], seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only thirteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour, from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time, though this act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head; Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a [[List of Roman consuls|Roman consul]] and the [[widower]] of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, [[Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)|Julia]] (who died in childbirth with Pompey's son). Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.
====Relationship with Julius Caesar====
[[File:Cleopatra and Caesar by Jean-Leon-Gerome.jpg|left|thumb|200px|Cleopatra and Julius Caesar. Painting by [[Jean-Léon Gérôme]]]]
Eager to take advantage of [[Julius Caesar]]'s anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself smuggled secretly into the palace to meet with Caesar. [[Plutarch]] in his Julius Caesar<ref>[[Parallel Lives]] - The Life of Julius Caesar, 49</ref> gives a vivid description on how she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet.<ref>So dramatic is the report of Plutarch (''Caesar'' 49.1–3), that is doubted by some scholars. Cleopatra had to be smuggled secretly into the palace, where Caesar was residing, because Ptolemy XIII blocked all ways to Alexandria to make it impossible for his half-sister to come in the city.</ref> She became Caesar’s mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, [[nickname]]d [[Caesarion]], which means "little Caesar."
At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After [[Battle of the Nile (47 BC)|a war]] lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the [[Nile]]<ref>''[[De Bello Alexandrino]]''28–32</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 42.43</ref> and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother [[Ptolemy XIV]] as her new co-ruler.<ref>''De Bello Alexandrino'' 33</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 42.44</ref><ref>Suetonius, ''Caesar'' 35.1</ref>
[[File:Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg|thumb|left|upright| Cleopatra VII and her son [[Caesarion]] at the [[Dendera Temple complex|Temple of Dendera]]]]
Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt between 48&nbsp;BC and 47&nbsp;BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew [[Augustus|Octavian]] instead. During this relationship, it was also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer [[Sosigenes of Alexandria]], who first proposed the idea of [[leap day]]s and [[leap year]]s.
Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46&nbsp;BC, where the Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses.<ref>Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 43.27.3</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">Cicero, ''Letters to Atticus'' 15.15.2</ref> The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, because the Roman dictator was already married to [[Calpurnia Pisonis]]. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as [[Isis]] in the temple of [[Venus Genetrix]] (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the [[Forum of Caesar|Forum Julium]].<ref>Appian, ''Civil Wars'' 2.102.424</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 51.22.3</ref> The Roman orator [[Cicero]] said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Cleopatra and her entourage were in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC.<ref>Cicero, ''Letters to Atticus'' 14.8.1 (written on 16 April 44 BC) says that he was very glad that the Queen had fled.</ref> She returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died – allegedly poisoned by his older sister – Cleopatra made [[Caesarion]] her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets ''Theos Philopator Philometor'' (= ''Father- and motherloving God'').<ref>[[Josephus]], ''[[Antiquities of the Jews]]'' 15.89</ref><ref>[[Porphyry (philosopher)|Porphyry]], ''[[Fragmente der griechischen Historiker]]'' (FGrH) 260 F 2, 16-17</ref><ref>stele BM 377 (15 February 42 BC) and others</ref>
====Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War====
In the Roman civil war between the Caesarian party, led by [[Mark Antony]] and Octavian, and the party of the assassins of Caesar, led by [[Marcus Junius Brutus]] and [[Gaius Cassius Longinus]], Cleopatra sided with the Caesarian party because of her past. Brutus and Cassius left Italy and sailed to the East of the Roman Empire, where they conquered large areas and established military bases. At the beginning of 43 BC, Cleopatra formed an alliance with the leader of the Caesarian party in the East, [[Publius Cornelius Dolabella]], who recognized Caesarion as her co-ruler.<ref>Appian, ''Civil Wars'' 4.61.262–263</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 47.30.4 and 47.31.5</ref> But soon, Dolabella was encircled in Laodicea and committed suicide (July 43 BC).
Cassius then wanted to invade Egypt to seize the treasures of that country and to punish the queen for her refusal to send him supplies and her support for Dolabella. Egypt seemed an easy target because the land did not have strong land forces and there was famine and an epidemic. Cassius also wanted to prevent Cleopatra from bringing reinforcements for Antony and Octavian. But he could not execute an invasion of Egypt, because at the end of 43 BC Brutus summoned him back to [[Smyrna]]. Cassius tried to blockade Cleopatra’s route to the Caesarians. For this purpose [[Lucius Staius Murcus]] moved with 60 ships and a legion of elite troops into position at [[Cape Matapan]] in the south of the [[Peloponnese]]. Nevertheless, Cleopatra sailed with her fleet from Alexandria to the west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leaders, but she was forced to return to Egypt because her ships were damaged by a violent storm and she became ill. Staius Murcus learned of the queen's misfortune and saw wreckage from her ships on the coast of Greece. He then sailed with his ships into the [[Adriatic Sea]].<ref>Appian, ''Civil Wars'' 4.63; 4.74; 4.82; 5.8</ref>
====Cleopatra and Mark Antony====
[[File:Lawrence Alma-Tadema- Anthony and Cleopatra.JPG|thumb|200px|''Antony and Cleopatra'', by [[Lawrence Alma-Tadema]]]]
[[File:Cleopatra VII tetradrachm Syria mint.jpg|thumb|200px|A tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, [[Syria]] mint]]
[[File:Guido Cagnacci 003.jpg|thumb|200px|''The Death of Cleopatra'' by [[Guido Cagnacci]], 1658]]
[[File:The Death of Cleopatra arthur.jpg|thumb|200px|''The Death of Cleopatra'' by [[Reginald Arthur]], 1892]]
In 41&nbsp;BC, [[Mark Antony]], one of the [[Second Triumvirate|triumvirs]] who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar's death, sent his intimate friend [[Quintus Dellius]] to Egypt. Dellius had to summon Cleopatra to [[Tarsus in Cilicia|Tarsus]] to meet Antony and answer questions about her loyalty. During the Roman civil war she allegedly had paid much money to Cassius. It seems that in reality Antony wanted Cleopatra’s promise to support his intended war against the [[Parthians]]. Cleopatra arrived in great state, and so charmed Antony that he chose to spend the winter of 41&nbsp;BC–40&nbsp;BC with her in Alexandria.<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Antony'' 25-29; Appian, ''Civil Wars'' 5.8-11; Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 48.24</ref>
To safeguard herself and Caesarion, she had Antony order the death of her sister [[Arsinoe IV of Egypt|Arsinoe]], who was living at the temple of [[Artemis]] in [[Ephesus]], which was under Roman control. The execution was carried out in 41&nbsp;BC on the steps of the temple, and this violation of temple sanctuary scandalised Rome.<ref name="cleopatrakiller">[[BBC]] documentary, ''Cleopatra portrait of a killer''</ref> Cleopatra had also executed her strategos of Cyprus, [[Serapion (strategos)|Serapion]], who had supported Cassius against her wishes.<ref>Appian, ''Civil Wars'' 5.9.35</ref>
On 25 December 40 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to [[fraternal twin|twins]] fathered by Antony, [[Alexander Helios]] and [[Cleopatra Selene II]]. Four years later, Antony visited Alexandria again en route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra, and from this point on, Alexandria was his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in [[Lives of the Twelve Caesars|Suetonius]] suggests this), although he was at the time married to [[Octavia Minor]], sister of his fellow triumvir [[Augustus|Octavian]]. He and Cleopatra had another child, [[Ptolemy Philadelphus (Cleopatra)|Ptolemy Philadelphus]].
At the [[Donations of Alexandria]] in late 34&nbsp;BC, following Antony's conquest of [[Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)|Armenia]], Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of [[Egypt]] and [[Cyprus]]; [[Alexander Helios]] was crowned ruler of Armenia, [[Medes|Media]], and [[Parthia]]; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of [[Cyrenaica]] and [[Libya]]; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of [[Phoenicia]], [[Syria]], and [[Cilicia]]. Cleopatra was also given the title of "Queen of Kings" by Antonius.<ref>Syme, p. 270.</ref> Her enemies in Rome feared that Cleopatra, "...was planning a war of revenge that was to array all the East against Rome, establish herself as empress of the world at Rome, cast justice from [[Capitolium]], and inaugurate a new universal kingdom."<ref>Syme, p. 274.</ref> [[Caesarion]] was not only elevated having coregency with Cleopatra, but also proclaimed with many titles, including god, [[son of god]] and [[king of kings]], and was depicted as [[Horus]].<ref name="Burstein2007">{{Citation|author=Stanley Mayer Burstein|title=The Reign of Cleopatra|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=KSonyiReFY8C&pg=PA20|accessdate=31 March 2011|date=30 December 2007|publisher=University of Oklahoma Press|isbn=9780806138718|page=20}}</ref> Egyptians thought Cleopatra was a reincarnation of the goddess [[Isis]], as she called herself ''Nea Isis''.<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Antony'' 54.9</ref>
Relations between Antony and Octavian, disintegrating for several years, finally broke down in 33&nbsp;BC, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC Antony's forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of [[Battle of Actium|Actium]]. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. Popular legend states that when she saw that Antony's poorly equipped and manned ships were losing to the Romans' superior vessels, she took flight and that Antony abandoned the battle to follow her, but no contemporary evidence states this was the case. Following the [[Battle of Actium]], Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony's armies deserted to Octavian on August 1, 30&nbsp;BC.
There are a number of unverifiable stories about Cleopatra, of which one of the best known is that, at one of the lavish dinners she shared with Antony, she playfully bet him that she could spend ten million [[sestertius|sesterces]] on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The earliest report of this story comes from [[Pliny the Elder]] and dates to about 100 years after the banquet described would have happened. The [[calcium carbonate]] in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.<ref>{{Citation | last = Ullman | first = Berthold L. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Cleopatra's Pearls | journal = The Classical Journal | volume = 52 | issue = 5 | pages = 193–201 | publisher = | year = 1957 | url = | postscript = . }}</ref>
The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to [[snakebite|bite]] her. The oldest source is [[Strabo]], who was alive at the time of the event, and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories: that she applied a toxic ointment, or that she was bitten by an [[Asp (reptile)|asp]] on her breast.<ref>but he said in his writings that he wasn't sure if Cleopatra poisoned herself or was murdered.
| last =Strabo
| author-link =Strabo
| title =[[Geographica (Strabo)|Geography]]
| location =XVII 10}}</ref> Several Roman poets, writing within ten years of the event, all mention bites by two asps,<ref>{{Citation
| last =Virgil
| author-link =Virgil
| title =[[Aeneid]]
| location =VIII 696–697}}
| last =Horace
| author-link =Horace
| title =Odes
| location =I 37
| last =Sextus Propertius
| author-link =Sextus Propertius
| title =Elegies
| location =III 11
</ref> as does [[Florus]], a historian, some 150 years later.<ref>
| last =Florus
| author-link =Florus
| title =Epitome of Roman History
| location =II 21
</ref> [[Marcus Velleius Paterculus|Velleius]], sixty years after the event, also refers to an asp.<ref>
| last =Velleius Paterculus
| author-link =Marcus Velleius Paterculus
| title =Compendium of Roman History
| location =II 87
</ref><ref>For a possible poetic allusion to the asp, see Wallace Stevens's [[In the Carolinas]]</ref> Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus had her killed.<ref>{{Citation |author=Everitt, Anthony |title=Augustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor |publisher=Random House Trade Paperbacks |location=New York |year=2007 |pages=194–195 |isbn=0-8129-7058-6}}</ref>
In 2010, the German historian Christoph Schaefer challenged all other theories, declaring that the queen had actually been poisoned and died from drinking a mixture of poisons. After studying historical texts and consulting with toxicologists, the historian concluded that the asp could not have caused a slow and pain-free death, since the asp ([[Egyptian cobra]]) venom paralyses parts of the body, starting with the eyes, before causing death. Schaefer and his toxicologist Dietrich Mebs decided Cleopatra used a mixture of [[hemlock]], [[Aconitum|wolfsbane]] and [[opium]].<ref>{{cite news | url=http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/24_folder/24_articles/24_statuscaspian.html | title= Poison, not snake, killed Cleopatra, scholar says - Cleopatra died a quiet and pain free death, historian alleges.| publisher= [[CNN]] | author = Melissa Gray | date= 2010-06-30 | accessdate=2010-06-30}}</ref>
[[Plutarch]], writing about 130&nbsp;years after the event, reports that Octavian succeeded in capturing Cleopatra in her mausoleum after the death of Antony. He ordered his freedman [[Epaphroditus (freedman of Augustus)|Epaphroditus]] to guard her to prevent her from committing suicide, because he allegedly wanted to present her in his [[Roman triumph|triumph]]. But Cleopatra was able to deceive Epaphroditus and kill herself nevertheless.<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Antony'' 79.6 and 85.4–6; Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 51.11.4–5 and 51.13.3–5</ref> Plutarch states that she was found dead, her handmaiden Iras dying at her feet, and another handmaiden, Charmion, adjusting her crown before she herself fell.<ref>
| last =Plutarch
| author-link =Plutarch
| title =Parallel Lives
| location =LXXXV 2–3 (Life of Antony)
</ref> He then goes on to state that an asp was concealed in a basket of figs that was brought to her by a rustic, and, finding it after eating a few figs, she held out her arm for it to bite. Other stories state that it was hidden in a vase, and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm. Finally, he indicates that in Octavian's triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra that had an asp clinging to it was part of the parade.<ref>
| last =Plutarch
| author-link =Plutarch
| title =ibid.
| location =LXXXVI 3.
See also
| last =Cassius Dio
| author-link =Cassius Dio
| title =Roman History
| location =LI 21
[[Suetonius]], writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra died from an asp bite.<ref>
| last =Suetonius
| author-link =Suetonius
| title =[[On the Life of the Caesars]]
| volume =Augustus
| location =XVII 4
Shakespeare gave us the final part of the image that has come down to us, Cleopatra clutching the snake to her breast.<ref>
| last =Shakespeare
| author-link =William Shakespeare
| title =[[Antony and Cleopatra]]
| location =V ii
</ref> Before him, it was generally agreed that she was bitten on the arm.<ref>
| last =Plutarch
| author-link =Plutarch
| title =loc. cit.
| last =Cassius Dio
| author-link =Cassius Dio
| title =op. cit.
| location =LI 14
| last =Galen
| author-link =Galen
| title =De Theriaca ad Pisonem
| location =CCXXXVII, who says she bit herself, rather than an asp biting her.
Plutarch tells us of the death of Antony. When his armies deserted him and joined with Octavian, he cried out that Cleopatra had betrayed him. She, fearing his wrath, locked herself in her monument with only her two handmaidens and sent messengers to tell Antony that she was dead. Believing them, Antony stabbed himself in the stomach with his sword, and lay on his couch to die. Instead, the blood flow stopped, and he begged any and all to finish him off. Another messenger came from Cleopatra with instructions to bring him to her, and he, rejoicing that Cleopatra was still alive, consented. She wouldn't open the door, but tossed ropes out of a window. After Antony was securely trussed up, she and her handmaidens hauled him up into the monument. This nearly finished him off. After dragging him in through the window, they laid him on a couch. Cleopatra tore off her clothes and covered him with them. She raved and cried, beat her breasts and engaged in self-mutilation. Antony told her to calm down, asked for a glass of wine, and died upon finishing it.<ref>{{Citation | last =Plutarch | author-link =Plutarch | title =ibid.}}</ref>
The site of their [[mausoleum]] is uncertain, though the [[Egyptian Antiquities Service]] believes it is in or near the temple of [[Taposiris Magna]], southwest of [[Alexandria]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8000978.stm |title=Dig 'may reveal' Cleopatra's tomb |publisher=BBC News |date=2009-04-15 |accessdate=2009-04-24}}</ref>
Cleopatra's son by Caesar, [[Caesarion]], was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians, after Alexandria fell to Octavian. Caesarion was captured and killed, his fate reportedly sealed when one of Octavian's advisers paraphrased Homer: "It is bad to have too many Caesars."<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Antony'' 81.4 – 82.1; Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 51.15.5; Suetonius, ''Augustus'' 17.5</ref> This ended not just the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs, but the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome where they were taken care of by Antony's wife, [[Octavia Minor]]. The daughter, [[Cleopatra Selene II|Cleopatra Selene]], was married through arrangements of Octavian to [[Juba II of Mauretania]].<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Antony'' 87.1–2; Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' 51.15.6; Suetonius, ''Augustus'' 17.5 and ''Caligula'' 26.1</ref>
==Character and cultural depictions==
[[File:Клеопатра VII.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Statue of Cleopatra as Egyptian goddess; Basalt, second half of the first century BC. Hermitage, Saint Petersburg]]
{{Main|Cultural depictions of Cleopatra VII}}
Cleopatra was regarded as a great beauty, even in the ancient world. In his ''Life of Antony'', [[Plutarch]] remarks that "judging by the proofs which she had had before this of the effect of her beauty upon Caius Caesar and Gnaeus the son of Pompey, she had hopes that she would more easily bring Antony to her feet. For Caesar and Pompey had known her when she was still a girl and inexperienced in affairs, but she was going to visit Antony at the very time when women have the most brilliant beauty."<ref name=cleoppearance/> Later in the work, however, Plutarch indicates that "her beauty, as we are told, was in itself not altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her."<ref name=cleoppearance/> Rather, what ultimately made Cleopatra attractive were her wit, charm and "sweetness in the tones of her voice."<ref name=cleoppearance/>
[[Cassius Dio]] also spoke of Cleopatra's allure: "For she was a woman of surpassing beauty, and at that time, when she was in the prime of her youth, she was most striking; she also possessed a most charming voice and knowledge of how to make herself agreeable to every one. Being brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate every one, even a love-sated man already past his prime, she thought that it would be in keeping with her role to meet Caesar, and she reposed in her beauty all her claims to the throne."<ref name=cleoppearance/>
These accounts influenced later cultural depictions of Cleopatra, which typically present her using her charms to influence the most powerful men in the Western world.
The high degree of [[inbreeding]] amongst the Ptolemies is also evident when one considers Cleopatra's immediate family. Her parents were likely brother and sister and hence she had only one set of grandparents. Those grandparents were uncle and niece again limiting the number of ancestors.<ref>Stacy Schiff, Cleopatra:
A Life, Hachette Digital, Inc., 2010, ISBN 978-0-316-00192-2 [http://books.google.com/books?id=dKIo6D9yh3cC Google Books]</ref> The relatively small number of ancestors can be seen from the possible ancestry of Cleopatra VII as shown below.<ref>Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 The family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found on pages 268-281. The authors refer to Cleopatra V as Cleopatra VI and Cleopatra Selene I is called Cleopatra V Selene.</ref>
{{chart| |PTOLEMY5|~|y|~|CLEO1|PTOLEMY5=[[Ptolemy V Epiphanes]]|CLEO1=[[Cleopatra I of Egypt]]}}
{{chart| | | |,|-|^|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|.}}
{{chart| | |PTOLEMY8|7| |PTOLEMY6|~|y|~|CLEO2|PTOLEMY8=[[Ptolemy VIII Physcon]]|PTOLEMY6=[[Ptolemy VI Philometor]]|CLEO2=[[Cleopatra II of Egypt]]}}
{{chart| | | | | |:| | | | | |!}}
{{chart| | | | | |L|~|~|y|~|CLEO3|CLEO3=[[Cleopatra III of Egypt]]}}
{{chart| | |,|-|-|-|v|-|^|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|.| }}
{{chart|PTOLEMY10|7| |CLEOSELENE|~|y|~|PTOLEMY9|~|y|~|CLEO4|PTOLEMY10=[[Ptolemy X Alexander I]]|CLEOSELENE=[[Cleopatra Selene I]]|PTOLEMY9=[[Ptolemy IX Lathyros]]|CLEO4=[[Cleopatra IV of Egypt]]}}
{{chart| | | |:| | | | | |!| | | | | |!}}
{{chart| | | |L|~|~|y|~|BERENICE3| | |F|PTOLEMY12|BERENICE3=[[Berenice III of Egypt]]|PTOLEMY12=[[Ptolemy XII Auletes]]}}
{{chart| | | | | | |!| | | | | | |:}}
{{chart| | | | | |CLEO5|~|~|y|~|~|J|CLEO5=[[Cleopatra V of Egypt]]}}
{{chart| | | | | | | | | |CLEO7|CLEO7='''Cleopatra VII'''}}
==Further reading==
===Primary sources===
*Hegesippus, ''Historiae'' i.29–32''.
*[[Lucan]], ''Bellum civile ix.909–911, x''.
*Macrobius, ''Saturnalia iii.17.14–18''.
*Orosius, ''Historiae adversus paganos vi.16.1–2, 19.4–18''.
*Pliny, ''Naturalis historia vii.2.14, ix.58.119–121, xxi.9.12''.
*{{Citation|last=Plutarch|editor-last=Warner|editor-first=Rex|title=Fall of the Roman Republic|year=1958|publisher=Penguin Books|location=London|isbn=0140440844|chapter=Caesar}}
*{{Citation|last=Plutarch|editor-last=Scott-Kilvert|editor-first=Ian|title=Makers of Rome|year=1965|publisher=Penguin Books|location=Baltimore|isbn=0140441581|chapter=Mark Antony}}
*Suetonius, ''De vita Caesarum'' ''Iul '' i.35.52, ii.17''.
===Modern sources===
*{{citation|last=Bradford|first=Ernle Dusgate Selby|title=Cleopatra|publisher=Penguin Group|year=2000|isbn=9780141390147}}
*{{Citation|last=Burstein|first=Stanley M.|title=The reign of Cleopatra|year=2004|publisher=Greenwood Press|location=Westport, CT|isbn=0313325278}}
*{{Citation|last=Flamarion|first=Edith|last2=Bonfante-Warren|first2=Alexandra|title=Cleopatra: The Life and Death of a Pharoah|publisher=Harry Abrams|year=1997|isbn=9780810928053}}
*{{citation|last=Foss|first=Michael|title=The Search for Cleopatra|publisher=Arcade Publishing|year=1999|isbn=9781559705035}}
*{{Citation|last=Fraser|first=P.M.|title=Ptolemaic Alexandria|year=1972|publisher=Clarendon Press|location=Oxford|isbn=0198142781}}
*{{Citation|last=Lindsay|first=Jack|title=Cleopatra|year=1972|publisher=Coward-McCann|location=New York}}
*{{citation|last=Nardo|first=Don|title=Cleopatra|publisher=Lucent Books|year=1994|isbn=9781560060239}}
*{{Citation|last=Pomeroy|first=Sarah B.|title=Women in Hellenistic Egypt : from Alexander to Cleopatra|year=1984|publisher=Schocken Books|location=New York|isbn=0805239111}}
*{{Citation|last=Roller|first=Duane W.|title=Cleopatra : a biography|year=2010|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|isbn=9780195365535}}
*{{citation|last=Syme|first=Ronald|title=The Roman Revolution|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1962}}
*{{Citation|last=Volkmann|first=H.|title=Cleopatra: A Study in Politics and Propaganda|year=1958|publisher=Sagamore Press|location=New York|others=T.J. Cadoux, trans}}
*{{citation|last=Walker|first=Susan|last2=Higgs|first2=Peter|title=Cleopatra of Egypt, From History to Myth|publisher=British Museum Press|year=2001|isbn=978-0714119434}}
*{{Citation|last=Weigall|first=Arthur|title=[http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AJL1424.0001.001 The Life and Times of Cleopatra Queen of Egypt]|year=1923|publisher=Putnam|location=London}}
==External links==
{{Sister project links|commons=Category:Cleopatra VII of Egypt}}
{{Wikinews|Egyptian archaeologist finds artifacts which may lead to Cleopatra's tomb}}
* {{In Our Time|Cleopatra|b00w7clj|Cleopatra}}
*[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Africa/Egypt/_Texts/BEVHOP/13*.html Cleopatra VII&nbsp;(VI)] at LacusCurtius – Chapter&nbsp;XIII of E.&nbsp;R.&nbsp;Bevan's ''House of Ptolemy'', 1923
*[http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/10992 Cleopatra], a Victorian children's book by [[Jacob Abbott]], 1852, [[Project Gutenberg]] edition.
*[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/miscellanea/cleopatra/cleopatra.html James Grout: ''Cleopatra''] part of the Encyclopædia Romana
*[http://www.discoverychannelasia.com/ontv_egyptweek/death_cleopatra/index.shtml "Mysterious Death of Cleopatra"] at the [http://www.discoverychannelasia.com/ Discovery Channel]
*[http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cleopatra_vii.shtml Cleopatra VII] at [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ BBC History]
*[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/pseudodoxia/pseudo512.html Sir Thomas Browne: Of the Picture describing the death of Cleopatra] (1672)
*[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/oddnotes/cleoinencaustic/cleopatraencaustic.html John Sartain: On the Antique Portrait of Cleopatra] (1818)
== Notennoù ==
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