Ferenc II Rákóczi : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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== Bugaleaj ==
Ar pinvidikañ eus perc'henned [[Rouantelezh Hungaria]] e oa ha kont (''comes perpetuus'') eus ar c'h- ''Comitatus Sarossiensis'' (''[[Kontelezh Sáros]]'') adalek 1694. Trede ha diwezhañ bugel ar priñs [[Ferenc Iañ Rákóczi]] e oa. E dad a oa priñs dilennet [[Transilvania]]. E vamm, [[Jelena Zrinska]] (''Zrínyi Ilona'' e hungareg), a oa merc'h da [[Petar Zrinski]] (''Zrínyi Péter'' e hungareg), <!-- [[Ban of Croatia]], --> ha nizez d'ar barzh [[Nikola VII Zrinski|Nikola Zrinski]] (''Zrínyi Miklós'' en Hungareg). E [[George II Rákóczi|dad-kozh]] ha [[George I Rákóczi|tad-kuñv]], anvet George, a oa Priñsed [[Transylvania]].
Breur Ferenc, George, a varvas en-bugel a-raok e c'hanedigezh , hag e c'hoar, [[Julianna Rákóczi|Julianna]], a oa pevar bloaz warnañ. E dad, Ferenc Iañ, a varvas pa ne oa nemet 4 bloaz hag an intañvez a c'houlennas ober war-dro he bugale. Met kuzulierien [[Leopold Iañ an Impalaeriezh Santel]] a alias an [[Impalaer santel]] da zerc'hel Ferenc bihan hag e c'hoar en e gichen, hervez youl o zad a-raok mervel. Daoust da se e chomas ar vugale gant o mamm, Jelena Zrinska, tra ma choment dindan aotrouniezh an impalaer hervez al lezenn.
The family lived in the [[Palanok Castle|castle of Munkács]] (today ''Mukacheve'', in [[Ukraine]]), [[Sárospatak]] and [[Regéc]] until 1680, when Francis’s paternal grandmother, [[Sophia Báthory]], died. Then, they moved permanently into the castle of Munkács. Rákóczi retained strong affection for this place throughout his life. Aside from his mother, Rákóczi's key educators were [[György Kőrössy]], [[castellan]] to the family, and János Badinyi.
[[Restr:Budapest Heroes square Ferenz Rákoczi II.jpg|thumb|Delwenn da Rákóczi, [[Hősök tere]], [[Budapest]], [[Hungaria]]]]
== Emsavadeg Thököly ==
Addimezet e oa Jelena Zrinska da [[Imre Thököly]], ha hennezh ne reas van ebet eus desevel e lezvab Rákóczi . <!--
's education, as he was by then heavily involved in politics. However, the failure of the Turks to capture the Habsburg capital in the [[Battle of Vienna]] in 1683 frustrated Thököly's plans to become King of [[Upper Hungary]]. When the Turks began to grow suspicious of his intentions, Thököly proposed sending the young Rákóczi to [[Constantinople]] as a guarantee of his goodwill. But Rákóczi’s mother opposed this plan, not wishing to be separated from her son.
In 1686 [[Antonio Caraffa]] besieged their residence, the castle of Munkács. Jelena Zrinska successfully led the defence of the castle for three years, but capitulated in 1688. The two Rákóczi children fell again under the guardianship of [[Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor|Leopold I]], and moved to [[Vienna]] with their mother. They regained their possessions, but could not leave the city without the Emperor's permission.
At the age of 17, the Emperor emancipated Rákóczi from his mother, thereby allowing him to own property. His sister Julianna had interceded for him after marrying a powerful Austrian, General Aspremont. Rákóczi lived with the Aspremonts until his marriage in September 1694, to 15-year-old Princess Amelia, a daughter of [[Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Wanfried]] and a descendant of Saint [[Elizabeth of Hungary]]. The couple moved to the [[Rákóczi]] castle at Sárospatak, where Rákóczi began to manage his properties.
The [[Treaty of Karlowitz]] on 26 January 1699, forced [[Imre Thököly|Thököly]] and Jelena Zrinska into exile. Rákóczi remained in [[Vienna]] under the Emperor’s supervision. Relying on the prevalent anti-Habsburg sentiment, remnants of Thököly’s peasant army started a new uprising in the [[Tokaj-Hegyalja|Hegyalja]] region of Northeastern present-day Hungary, which was part of the property of the Rákóczi family. They captured the castles of [[Tokaj]], [[Sárospatak]] and [[Sátoraljaújhely]], and asked Rákóczi to become their leader, but he was not eager to head what appeared to be a minor peasant rebellion. He quickly returned to Vienna, where he tried his best to clear his name.
[[File:Rákoci.jpg|thumb|250px|The memorial plate of Francis II Rákóczi bricked into the northern wall of the [[St. Elisabeth Cathedral]] in [[Košice]], [[Slovakia]].]]
Rákóczi then befriended [[Miklós Bercsényi|Count Miklós Bercsényi]], whose property at [[Ungvár]] (today ''Ужгород (Uzhhorod)'', in [[Ukraine]]), lay next to his own. Bercsényi was a highly educated man, the third richest man in the kingdom (after Rákóczi and [[Simon Forgách]]), and was related to most of the Hungarian aristocracy.
== The Rákóczi Uprising ==
{{Main|Rákóczi's War for Independence}}
As the [[Habsburg|House of Habsburg]] was on the verge of dying out in Spain, [[France]] was looking for allies in its fight against Austrian hegemony. Consequently, they established contact with Rákóczi and promised support if he took up the cause of Hungarian independence. An Austrian spy seized this correspondence and brought it to the attention of the Emperor. As a direct result of this, Rákóczi was arrested on 18 April 1700, and imprisoned in the fortress of [[Wiener Neustadt]] (south of Vienna). It became obvious during the preliminary hearings that, just as in the case of his grandfather [[Petar Zrinski]], the only possible sentence for Francis was death. With the aid of his pregnant wife Amelia and the prison commander, Rákóczi managed to escape and flee to [[Poland]]. Here he met with Bercsényi again, and together they resumed contact with the French court.
Three years later, the [[War of the Spanish Succession]] caused a large part of the Austrian forces in the Kingdom of Hungary to temporarily leave the country. Taking advantage of the situation, [[Kurucs|Kuruc]] forces began a new uprising in Munkács, and Rákóczi was asked to head it. He decided to invest his energies in a war of national liberation, and accepted the request. On 15 June 1703, another group of about 3000 armed men headed by [[Tamás Esze]] joined him near the Polish city of Lawoczne. Bercsényi also arrived, with French funds and 600 Polish mercenaries.
[[File:Benczur-rakoczi.jpg|thumb|[[Gyula Benczúr]] (1844–1920): Capture of Francis II. Rákóczi in Nagysáros Castle (1869)]]
Most of the Hungarian nobility did not support Rákóczi’s uprising, because they considered it to be no more than a [[jacquerie]], a peasant rebellion. Rákóczi’s famous call to the nobility of [[Szabolcs (county)|Szabolcs county]] seemed to be in vain. He did manage to convince the [[Hajduk (Hungarian soldiers)|Hajdús]] (emancipated peasant warriors) to join his forces, so his forces controlled most of [[Kingdom of Hungary]] to the east and north of the [[Danube]] by late September 1703. He continued by conquering [[Transdanubia]] soon after.
Since the Austrians had to fight Rákóczi on several fronts, they felt obliged to enter negotiations with him. However, the victory of Austrian and British forces against a combined French-Bavarian army in the [[Battle of Blenheim]] on 13 August 1704, provided an advantage not only in the War of the Spanish Succession, but also prevented the union of Rákóczi’s forces with their French-Bavarian allies.
This placed Rákóczi into a difficult military and financial situation. French support gradually diminished, and a larger army was needed to occupy the already-won land. Meanwhile, supplying the current army with arms and food was beyond his means. He tried to solve this problem by creating a new copper-based coinage, which was not easily accepted in Hungary as people were used to silver coins. Nevertheless, Rákóczi managed to maintain his military advantage for a while – but after 1706, his army was forced into retreat.
A meeting of the Hungarian [[Diet (assembly)|Diet]] (consisting of 6 bishops, 36 aristocrats and about 1000 representatives of the lower nobility of 25 counties), held near [[Szécsény]] ([[Nógrád (county)|Nógrád county]]) in September 1705, elected Rákóczi to be the "vezérlő fejedelem" - (ruling) [[prince]] - of the Confederated Estates of the Kingdom of Hungary, to be assisted by a 24-member [[Senate]]. Rákóczi and the Senate were assigned joint responsibility for the conduct of foreign affairs, including peace talks.
[[File:Rákóczi szobor.jpg|thumb|250px|Statue in [[Budapest]], Hungary]]
Encouraged by [[England]] and the [[Netherlands]], peace talks started again on 27 October 1705 between the Hungarians and the Emperor. Both sides varied their strategy according to the military situation. One stumbling block was the sovereignty over [[Transylvania]] – neither side was prepared to give it up. Rákóczi’s proposed treaty with the French was stalled, so he became convinced that only a declaration of independence would make it acceptable for various powers to negotiate with him. In 1706, his wife (whom he had not seen in 5 years, along with their sons József and György) and his sister were both sent as peace ambassadors, but Rákóczi rejected their efforts on behalf of the Emperor.
In 1707 during the [[Great Northern War]] he was one of the candidates to the throne of [[Poland]], supported by [[Elżbieta Sieniawska]].
On Rákóczi’s recommendation, and with Bercsényi’s support, another meeting of the Diet held at Ónod ([[Borsod]] county) declared the deposition of the [[Habsburg|House of Habsburg]] from the Hungarian throne on 13 June 1707. But neither this act, nor the copper currency issued to avoid monetary inflation, were successful. [[Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV]] refused to enter into treaties with Prince Rákóczi, leaving the Hungarians without allies. There remained the possibility of an alliance with [[Imperial Russia]], but this did not materialize either.
En [[Emgann Trenčín]] ( ''Trencsén'' e hungareg, ''Trentschin'' en alamaneg, ''Trentsinium'' e latin, [[Trenčín county|Comitatus Trentsiniensis]], e [[Slovakia]] hiriv), on 3 August 1708 Rákóczi’s horse stumbled, and he fell to the ground, which knocked him unconscious. The [[Kurucs|Kuruc]] forces thought him dead and fled. This defeat was fatal for the uprising. Numerous Kuruc leaders transferred their allegiance to the Emperor, hoping for clemency. Rákóczi’s forces became restricted to the area around Munkács and [[Szabolcs (county)|Szabolcs county]]. Not trusting the word of János Pálffy, who was the Emperor’s envoy charged with negotiations with the rebels, the Prince left the Kingdom of Hungary for [[Poland]] on 21 February 1711.
==The Peace Agreement==
In Rákóczi’s absence, [[Sándor Károlyi]] was named Commander-in-Chief of the Hungarian forces, and quickly negotiated a peace agreement with [[Johann Bernhard Stephan, Graf Pálffy ab Erdöd|János Pálffy]]. Under its provisions, 12,000 rebels laid down their arms, handed over their flags and took an oath of allegiance to the Emperor on 1 May 1711 in the fields outside [[Majtény]], in [[Szatmár]] county.
The [[Peace of Szatmár]] did not treat Rákóczi particularly badly. He was assured clemency if he took an oath of allegiance to the Emperor, as well as freedom to move to Poland if he wanted to leave the Kingdom of Hungary. He did not accept these conditions, doubting the honesty of the Habsburg court, and he did not even recognize the legality of the Peace Treaty, as it had been signed after the death of the Emperor [[Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor|Joseph I]] on 17 April 1711, which terminated the plenipotential authority of János Pálffy.
Rákóczi was offered the Polish Crown twice, supported by Tsar [[Peter I of Russia]]. He turned the offers down, though, and remained in Poland until 1712, where he was the honoured guest of the Polish aristocracy. For a while he lived in [[Gdańsk|Danzig]] (now [[Gdańsk]], in [[Poland]]) under the pseudonym of ''Count of Sáros''.
He left Danzig on 16 November 1712, and went to England, where [[Anne of Great Britain|Queen Anne]], pressured by the Habsburgs, refused to receive him. Rákóczi then crossed the Channel to [[France]], landing in [[Dieppe, Seine-Maritime|Dieppe]] on 13 January 1713. On 27 April he handed a memorandum to [[Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV]] reminding him of his past services to France and asking him not to forget Hungary during the coming peace negotiations for the [[War of the Spanish Succession]]. But neither the [[Treaty of Utrecht]] in 1713 nor the [[Treaty of Rastatt]] in 1714 made any mention of Hungary or Rákóczi. No provisions were even made to allow Rákóczi’s two sons, who were kept under surveillance in Vienna, to rejoin their father.
Prince Rákóczi, although not recognized officially by France, was much in favour in the French court. But after the death of [[Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV]] on 1 September 1715, he decided to accept the invitation of [[Turkey|the Ottoman Empire]] (still at war with the Habsburgs) to move there. He left France in September 1717, with an entourage of 40 people. and landed at [[Gallipoli]] on 10 October 1717. He was received with honours, but his desire to head up a separate Christian army to help in the fight against the Habsburgs was not under serious consideration.
The [[Ottoman Empire]] signed the Peace [[Treaty of Passarowitz]] with Austria on 21 July 1718. Among its provisions was the refusal of the Turks to extradite the exiled Hungarians. Two years later, the Austrian envoy requested that the exiles be turned over, but the [[Sultan]] refused as a matter of honour. Rákóczi and his entourage were settled in the town of [[Tekirdağ]] (Rodostó in [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]]), relatively distant from the [[Istanbul|Ottoman capital]], and a large Hungarian colony grew up around this town on the [[Sea of Marmara]]. Bercsényi, Count Simon Forgách, Count Antal Esterházy, Count Mihály Csáky, Miklós Sibrik, Zsigmond Zay, the two Pápays, and Colonel Ádám Jávorka were among many who settled there, sharing the sentiment of the writer [[Kelemen Mikes]], who said, “I had no special reason to leave my country, except that I greatly loved the Prince.”
[[File:Rodošto.jpg|thumb|250px|The memorial house of Francis II Rákóczi in [[Košice]] (the replica of his house in the Turkish exile in [[Tekirdağ|Rodostó]])]]
Rákóczi lived in the Turkish town of [[Tekirdağ]] for 18 years. He adopted a set routine: rising early, attending daily Mass, writing and reading in the mornings, and carpentry in the afternoons; visited occasionally by his son, György Rákóczi. Further military troubles in 1733 in Poland awakened his hopes of a possible return to Hungary, but they were not fulfilled. Rákóczi was 59 years old when he died on 8 April 1735.
Rákóczi’s testament ( will ), dated 27 October 1733, left something to all his family members as well as to his fellow exiles. He left separate letters to be sent to the Sultan and to [[France]]’s Ambassador to Constantinople, asking them not to forget about his fellow exiles. His internal organs were buried in the Greek church of [[Rodosto]], while his heart was sent to France. After obtaining the permission of the Turkish authorities, Rákóczi’s body was taken by his faithful chamberlain Kelemen Mikes to [[Constantinople]] on 6 July 1735 for burial in Saint-Benoît (then Jesuit) French church in Galata, where he was buried, according to his last wishes, next to his mother [[Jelena Zrinska]].
His remains were moved on 29 October 1906 to the [[St. Elisabeth Cathedral]] in [[Košice|Kassa]], [[Kingdom of Hungary|Hungary]] (today Košice, [[Slovakia]]), where he is buried with his mother Jelena and his son.<ref>Katalin Mária Kincses „Without Special Ceremony: The Cult of Rákóczi - Bringing Home the Prince's Mortal Remains” [http://epa.oszk.hu/00000/00018/00023/10.htm]</ref>
*Early life
** 27 March 1676 – Rákóczi is born.
** 26 January 1699 – [[Treaty of Karlowitz]] forces [[Imre Thököly|Emmeric Thököly]] and [[Jelena Zrinska]] into exile.
** 11 February 1701 – Negotiations begin with [[Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV]] concerning the Hungarian struggle for independence.
** February, 1701 – Correspondence is seized by an Austrian spy. Rákóczi is jailed, but escapes being sentenced to death.
* The War of Independence
** 15 June 1703 – Rákóczi meets Tamás Esze and his army on the Hungarian border.
** 26 September 1703 – Large portions of Hungary are under Rákóczi's control.
** 13 August 1704 – The Habsburgs (with British help) defeat the combined French-Bavarian army, thus depriving Rákóczi of an important ally.
** 20 September 1705 – The Diet of [[Szécsény]] proclaims Rákóczi as the ruling Prince and establishes a governing structure for the country.
** 15 May 1705 – Death of [[Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor|Emperor Leopold I]], accession of [[Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor|Joseph I]] to the throne.
** 27 October 1705 – Peace negotiations begin.
** 13 June 1707 – The Diet of [[Ónod]] deposes the [[Habsburg|House of Habsburg]] from the Hungarian throne.
* End of the war, Peace Treaty
** 3 August 1708 – [[Kurucs|Kuruc]] defeated at the Battle of [[Trentsinium]] ([[Trencsén]])).
** 22 January 1710 – Battle of [[Romhány]], one of the last battles of the war (a Kuruc loss, or a draw).
** 21 February 1711 – Rákóczi goes into exile.
** 1 May 1711 – Hungarian forces surrender near [[Szatmár]].
* Exile
** 13 January 1713 – Rákóczi arrives in [[Dieppe, Seine-Maritime|Dieppe]], [[France]].
** 10 October 1717 – Rákóczi arrives in [[Turkey]].
** 8 April 1735 – Dies in [[Tekirdağ]].
Rákóczi has become a Hungarian national hero whose memory still lives on. Most Hungarians associate his last name with him alone, not other members of the same family.
[[File:Histoire Des Revolutions De Hongrie 1739.jpg|left|thumb|''Histoire des Révolutions de Hongrie'', [[The Hague]], by [[Jean Neaulme]], 1739]]
[[File:RakocziFerenc Statue.jpg|thumb||Statue of Rákóczi in [[Miskolc]]-[[Görömböly]]]]
[[File:Szeged-rakoczi.jpg|thumb|Statue in [[Szeged]], Hungary]]
His equestrian statue with the famous motto "Cum Deo Pro Patria et Libertate" written on its red marble base was erected in front of the [[Hungarian Parliament Building]] on [[Lajos Kossuth Square]] in 1937. The memorial is the work of [[János Pásztor]]. In the 1950s the first two words ("Cum Deo" i.e. ''With the Help of God'') were deleted because of ideological reasons but they were rewritten in 1989.
When the great '''Millennium Monument''' on [[Heroes' Square (Budapest)|Heroes' Square]] was purged from the statues of the [[Habsburg]] kings of Hungary after 1945 the best sculptor of the period, [[Zsigmond Kisfaludi Strobl]] made a new statue of Rákóczi instead of [[Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor|King Lipót II]]. It was erected in 1953 together with a relief on the base depicting the meeting of Rákóczy and [[Tamás Esze]].
===Places and institutions===
Many Hungarian cities have commemorated Rákóczi by naming streets and squares after him.
One of the most prominent roads in [[Budapest]] is '''Rákóczi út''' ("Rákóczi road"), forming the boundary between Districts VII and VIII. The street was named after him on 28 October 1906 when his remains were brought back to Hungary from [[Turkey]] and a long funeral march went along the street to the [[Eastern Railway Station (Budapest)|Eastern Railway Station]]. '''Rákóczi tér''' ("Rákóczi square"), in District VIII, was also named after him in 1874.
One of the bridges on Danube at Budapest is also named [[Rákóczi Bridge]] after Francis II. Rákóczi.
In Hungary two villages bear the name of Rákóczi. [[Rákóczifalva]] in [[Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok]] County was established in 1883 on the former estate of Rákóczi were the Prince had a hunting lodge. The neighbouring [[Rákócziújfalu]] became an independent village in 1950 (before that it was part of Rákóczifalva).
The village of [[Zavadka]], today in [[Ukraine]] next to the [[Veretski Pass]] (Hungarian: ''Vereckei-hágó'') where Rákóczi arrived at Hungary in the beginning of the uprising in 1703 and where he said goodbye to his followers in 1711 going into exile was renamed '''Rákócziszállás''' in 1889. The neighbouring village of Podpolóc (today [[Pidpolozzya]]) where Rákóczi spent a night in 1703 was renamed that year '''Vezérszállás'''. After 1918 the two villages got back their former names.
The '''Mount Bovcar''' (today [[Vovcharskiy Vrh]] in present-day [[Ukraine]] and the neighbouring '''Bovcar Spring''' was named by the local [[Rusyns|Rusyn]] people after Rákóczi who drank from the spring on 18 February 1711. Bovcar means "the Tsar was here" in [[Rusyn language]].
The library of [[Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén]] county in [[Miskolc]] (II. Rákóczi Ferenc Megyei Könyvtár) has also been named after him.
The house, in which he lived in Tekirdağ is a [[Rákóczi Museum, Tekirdağ|museum]] now, open to the visitors everyday except mondays.
[[File:HUF 500 1998 obverse.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Rákóczi on the 500 [[Hungarian forint|Ft]] banknote]]
Rákóczi’s portrait can be found on Hungarian banknotes. Before it had been withdrawn from circulation, it was on the 50-forint note. Since then it has been transferred to the 500-[[Hungarian forint|forint]] note.
===The Rákóczi March===
A well-known patriotic tune of the 18-19th century (composer unknown), is also named after Rákóczi, as it was reputed to be his favourite, although actually it was composed only in the 1730s. [[Hector Berlioz]] orchestrated the piece, and it was also used by [[Franz Liszt]] as the basis of his [[Hungarian Rhapsodies|Hungarian Rhapsody No.15]]. The Rákóczy March remains a popular piece of Hungarian state and military celebrations.
==See also==
* [[Executioner’s Bastion]]
* [[Rákóczi’s sculpture in Košice]]
* [[Count of Saint Germain]] theorized as son
==External links==
* [http://www.hungarian-history.hu/lib/hunspir/hsp28.htm His life]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/sk3/quality/Part_of_Hungary_II.html A detailed timeline of his rebellion]
* [http://english.mnb.hu/Engine.aspx?page=mnben_notes&ContentID=3322 His picture on the Hungarian 500 forint banknote]
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