Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Herri Iañ (Bro-Saoz)"

D (Bot : en:Henry I of England zo ur pennad eus an dibab; Kemm dister)
{{pennad zo|Herri Iañ}}
{{Stumm an titl|Herri I{{añ}} (Bro-Saoz)}}
{{Istor diechu}}
'''Herri I{{añ}}''', lesanvet ''Beauclerc'' (war-dro 1068/1069 – [[1 a viz Kerzu]] 1135), a oa pevare mab [[Gwilherm an Alouber|Gwilherm Iañ, roue Bro-Saoz]]. Roue Bro-Saoz e voe war-lerc'h e vreur henañ [[Gwilherm II (Bro-Saoz)|Gwilherm II]] e 1100. Trec'hiñ a reas e vreur [[Roparzh II (dug Normandi)|Roparzh Berr-e-heuz]] evit bezañ [[dug Normandi]] e 1106. Lesanvet e oa '''Beauclerc''' dre ma oa troet gant ar studi, ha '''Leon a Justis''' dre ma klaskas lakaat urzh el lezennoù.
* da [[William Rufus]] [[Rouantelezh Bro-Saoz]] ma voe anvet ar roue William II
* da [[Herri Beauclerc]] 5 000 lur arc'hant.
Hervez ar c'hronikour [[Orderic Vitalis]] en dije lavaret ar roue kozh d'e vav Herri: "'' Dit-te un deiz e vo an holl zouaroù am eus gounezet ha brasoc'h e vo da vadoù ha da c'halloud eget hini da zaou vreur. ''."
Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.
==Seizing the throne of England==
{{House of Normandy|henry1}}
When, on [[2 August]] [[1100]], William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the [[First Crusade]]. His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at [[Winchester, Hampshire]], where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel.{{Fact|date=March 2009}} Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading [[Barons]] and was crowned three days later on [[5 August]] at [[Westminster Abbey]]. He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a [[Charter of Liberties]] which is considered a forerunner of the [[Magna Carta]].
==First marriage==
On [[11 November]] [[1100]] Henry married [[Matilda of Scotland|Edith]], daughter of [[King Malcolm III]] of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of [[Edgar Atheling]] and the great-granddaughter of [[Edward the Confessor]]'s paternal half-brother [[Edmund II|Edmund Ironside]], the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.
The chronicler [[William of Malmesbury]] described Henry thus: "''He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy.''"
==Conquest of Normandy==
In the following year, 1101, [[Robert Curthose]], Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the [[Treaty of Alton]], Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to [[Normandy]], upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.
In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the [[English Channel]].
===Battle of Tinchebray===
{{Main|Battle of Tinchebray}}
On the morning of the [[28 September]] [[1106]], exactly 40 years after William had landed in England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.
==King of England and Ruler of Normandy==
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the [[Tower of London]], subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the [[Duchy of Normandy]] as a possession of the Kingdom of [[England]] and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.
In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, [[William Adelin]], to the daughter of [[Fulk of Jerusalem]] (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son [[Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou|Geoffrey Plantagenet]], which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the [[Plantagenet]] Kings.
==Activities as a King==
[[Image:Henry I of England - Illustration from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902.jpg|thumb|right|180px|'''Henry I''' depicted in ''Cassell's History of England'' (1902)]]
Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
*issuing the [[Charter of Liberties]]
*restoring the laws of [[Edward the Confessor]].
Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with [[Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm]], the [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], and [[Pope Paschal II]] in the [[Anselm of Canterbury#Conflicts with King Henry I|investiture controversy]], which was settled in the [[Concordat of London]] in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "[[temporalities]]" (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called ''commendatio'', the [[commendation ceremony]], like any secular vassal.
Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a traitorous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of [[Ivry-la-Bataille|Ivry]], exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.
== E vugale hervez al lezenn ==
E 1135 ez eas Herri da Normandi da weladenniñ e vibien-vihan, bugale Matilda ha Jafrez.
He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.
Henry died on [[1 December]] [[1135]] of [[Foodborne illness|food poisoning]] from eating "a surfeit of [[lamprey]]s" (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now [[Lyons-la-Forêt]]) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at [[Reading Abbey]], which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the [[Protestant Reformation]]. No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small [[Commemorative plaque|plaque]] and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining [[Forbury Gardens]].
[[Image:HenryBeauclerc Plaque.JPG|thumb|right|Plaque indicating burial-place of Henry I]]
Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the [[House of Anjou]], an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew [[Stephen of England|Stephen of Blois]], to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.
The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as [[the Anarchy]]. The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, [[Henry II of England|Henry Plantagenet]], as his heir in 1153.
== E vesterd ==
N'eus roue saoz ebet hag en devije bet kement a vesterd, p'en doa etre 20 ha 25 anezho. Kalz a serc'hed en doa ha diaes eo gouzout piv a zo mamm dezho holl. Setu ar re a zo anavezet:
{{s-hou|[[Normans|House of Normandy]]||1068/1069|1 December|1135}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Gwilherm II (Bro-Saoz)|Gwilherm II]]}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Steven (Bro-Saoz)|Steven Bleaz]]}}
|F=[[William I of England|William I<br />King of England]]
|FF=[[Robert II, Duke of Normandy|Robert II of Normandy]]
|FM=[[Herleva|Herleva Falaise]]
|M=[[Matilda Flandrez]]
|MF=[[Baldwin V of Flanders]]
|MFH=[[Count of Flanders|Flanders]]
|MM=[[Adela of France, Countess of Flanders|Adela of France]]
|MMH=[[House of Capet|Capet Major]]}}
{{s-ref|Tompsett, Brian, [http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/genealogy/royal/catalog.html Directory of Royal Genealogical Data] (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).|Ross, Kelley L., [http://www.friesian.com/ The Proceedings of the Friesian School] (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).}}
[[Rummad:Rouaned Bro-Saoz]]
43 616