Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Hebraeg"

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Ur [[yezh semitek]] eus is-skourrisskourr ar [[yezhoù kananek]] eo an '''hebraeg''', pe ''hebreeg''<ref>Meneget e-barzh [[Geriadur Vallée]] hag en ur skouer e [[Geriadur Istorel ar Brezhoneg]]; diwar [[Hebre]], anv ar bobl, a gaver e [[Geriadur Istorel ar Brezhoneg]] ha [[Geriadur Hemon -Huon]]; ne gaver ar stumm "hebreeg" e geriadur peurunvan ebet.</ref>, ''´Ivrith''/ עִבְרִית en hebreeg, komzet gant 7 500 000{{formatnum:7500000}} den en [[Israel]], [[Palestina]] ha dre ar bed a-bezh. War-dro 6 000 000{{formatnum:6000000}} eus e yezherien a zo [[yuzeviezhYuzevien|yuzevionYuzevion]] o chom en Israel. 700 000{{formatnum:700000}} bennak a b[[Palestina|Palestiniz]] en Israel ha Palestina a ra gantañ evelda eil yezh.
 
Skrivet e vez an hebraeg gant al [[lizherenneg hebraek]] (hag a vez implijet evit al lodenn vrasañ eus ar [[yezhoù yuzevek]] all ivez). Met n'eo ket an alfabet-se a orin hebraek e gwirionez: amprestet eo bet digant an [[Yezhoù aramaek|aramaeg]] en henamzer.
En {{XXvet kantved}} ez eo bet lakaet an hebraeg da vevañ adarre a-drugarez da strivoù [[Eliezer Ben Yehouda]] (Eliezer Yitzc'hak Perelman, 1858-1922) dreist-holl. Hiziv an deiz ez eo unan eus yezhoù ofisiel Stad [[Israel]]. Meur a [[yezhoù yuzevek|yezh yuzevek]] all a zo en arvar da vont da get abalamour da astenn an hebraeg.
 
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== Istor ar yezh ==
<!--While the term "Hebrew" as a nationality is customarily used to refer to the ancient [[Israelite]]s, the classical Hebrew language was extremely similar to the [[Canaanite languages]] spoken by their neighbors, such as [[Phoenician language|Phoenician]]; indeed, [[Moabite language|Moabite]] and Hebrew are often considered to be two dialects of the same language.
 
Hebrew strongly resembles [[Aramaic language|Aramaic]] and to a lesser extent South-Central [[Arabic language|Arabic]], sharing many linguistic features with them.
 
===Early history===
Hebrew is an Afro-Asiatic language. This language family is generally thought by linguists to have originated somewhere in northeastern [[Africa]], and began to diverge around the [[8th millennium BCE]], although there is much debate about the exact date and place. (The theory is espoused by most archeologists and linguists, but at odds with traditional reading of the Torah.) One branch of this family, [[Semitic languages|Semitic]], eventually reached the [[Middle East]]; it gradually differentiated into a variety of related languages.
 
By the end of the [[3rd millennium BCE]] the ancestral languages of [[Aramaic]], [[Ugaritic]], and other various [[Canaanite]] languages were spoken in the [[Levant]] alongside the influential dialects of [[Ebla]] and [[Akkad]]. As the Hebrew founders from northern [[Harran|Haran]] filtered south into and came under the influence of the Levant, like many sojourners into Canaan including the [[Philistines]], they adopted Canaanite dialects. The first written evidence of distinctive Hebrew, the [[Gezer calendar]], dates back to the [[10th century BCE]], the traditional time of the reign of [[David]] and [[Solomon]]. It presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The [[Gezer]] calendar (named after the city in whose proximity it was found) is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the [[Phoenician alphabet|Phoenician]] one that through the [[ancient Greece|Greek]]s and [[Etruscan civilization|Etruscan]]s later became the [[Roman script]]. The Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places where more modern spelling requires it (see below).
 
[[Image:Silwan-inscr.jpg|left|300px|thumb|The [[Shebna]] lintel, from the tomb of a royal steward found in [[Siloam]], dates to the 7th century BCE.]]
Numerous older tablets have been found in the region with similar scripts written in other Semitic languages, for example [[Protosinaitic]]. It is believed that the original shapes of the script go back to the hieroglyphs of the Egyptian writing, though the phonetic values are instead inspired by the [[acrophonic]] principle. The common ancestor of Hebrew and Phoenician is called [[Canaanite]], and was the first to use a Semitic alphabet distinct from Egyptian. One ancient document is the famous [[Moabite Stone]] written in the Moabite dialect; the [[Siloam Inscription]], found near [[Jerusalem]], is an early example of Hebrew. Less ancient samples of Old Hebrew include the [[ostracon | ostraka]] found near [[Lachish]] which describe events preceding the final capture of Jerusalem by [[Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon|Nebuchadnezzar]] and the Babylonian captivity of [[586 BCE]].
 
The most famous work originally written in Hebrew is the [[Tanakh]], though the time at which it was written is a matter of dispute (see [[dating the Bible]] for details). The earliest extant copies were found among the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]], written between the [[2nd century BCE]] and the [[1st century]] CE.
 
The formal language of the latter [[Babylonia|Babylonian Empire]] was Aramaic (its name is either derived from "Aram Naharayim", Upper Mesopotamia, or from "Aram," the ancient name for Syria). The [[Persian Empire]], which had captured Babylonia a few decades later under Cyrus, adopted Aramaic as the official language. [[Aramaic]] is also a North-West Semitic language, quite similar to Hebrew. Aramaic has contributed many words and expressions to Hebrew, mainly as the language of commentary in the [[Talmud]] and other religious works.
 
In addition to numerous words and expressions, Hebrew also borrowed the [[Aramaic alphabet|Aramaic writing system]]. Although the original Aramaic letter forms were derived from the same Phoenician alphabet that was used in ancient Israel, they had changed significantly, both in the hands of the Mesopotamians and of the Jews, assuming the forms familiar to us today around the [[1st century|first century]] CE. Writings of that era (most notably, some of the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] found in [[Qumran]]) are written in a script very similar to the "square" one still used today.
 
===Later history===
The Jews living in the Persian Empire adopted Aramaic, and Hebrew quickly fell into disuse. It was preserved, however, as the literary language of Bible study. Aramaic became the vernacular language of the renewed Judaea for the following 700 years. Famous works written in Aramaic include the [[Targum]], the [[Talmud]] and several of [[Flavius Josephus]]' books (several of the latter were not preserved, however, in the original.) Following the [[Destruction of Jerusalem|destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple]] in [[70]] CE, the Jews gradually began to disperse from Judaea into foreign countries (this dispersion was hastened when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem (and turned it into a pagan city named ''Aelia Capitolina'') in 135 CE after putting down [[Bar Kokhba's revolt]].) For many hundreds of years Aramaic remained the spoken language of Mesopotamian Jews, and [[Lishana Deni]], one of several [[Judæo-Aramaic language]]s, is a modern descendant that is still spoken by a few thousand Jews (and many non-Jews) from the area known as [[Kurdistan]]; however, it gradually gave way to Arabic, as it had given way to other local languages in the countries to which the Jews had gone.
 
Hebrew was not used as a mother tongue for roughly 1800 years. However the Jews have always devoted much effort to maintaining high standards of literacy among themselves, the main purpose being to let any Jew read the [[Tanakh|Hebrew Bible]] and the accompanying religious works in the original (see [[rabbinic literature]], [[Halakha#Codes_of_Jewish_law | Codes of Jewish law]], [[Judaism#The_Traditional_Jewish_Bookshelf | The Jewish Bookshelf]]). It is interesting to note that the languages that the Jews assimilated from their adopted nations, namely [[Ladino language|Ladino]] and [[Yiddish language|Yiddish]], were not directly connected to Hebrew (the former being based on Spanish and Arabic borrowings, and the latter being a remote dialect of [[Middle High German]]), however, both were written from right to left using the Hebrew script and incorporated many Hebrew words. Hebrew was also used as a language of communication among Jews from different countries, particularly for the purpose of international trade.
 
The most important contribution to preserving traditional Hebrew pronunciation in this period was that of scholars called [[Masoretes]] (from ''masoret'' meaning "tradition"), who from about the seventh to the tenth centuries CE devised detailed markings to indicate vowels, stress, and [[cantillation]] (recitation methods). The original Hebrew texts used only consonants, and later some consonants were used to indicate long vowels. By the time of the Masoretes this text was considered too sacred to be altered, so all their markings were in the form of pointing in and around the letters.
 
===Hebreag a-vremañ===
The revival of Hebrew as a [[mother tongue]] was initiated by the efforts of [[Eliezer Ben-Yehuda]] ([[1858]]-[[1922]]) ({{Ivrit|אליעזר בן־יהודה}}). He joined the [[Zionism|Jewish national movement]] and in [[1881]] emigrated to [[Eretz Israel]], then a part of the [[Ottoman Empire]]. Motivated by the surrounding ideals of renovation and rejection of the [[Jewish diaspora|diaspora]] "[[shtetl]]" lifestyle, Ben-Yehuda set out to develop tools for making the [[literary language|literary]] and [[liturgical language]] into everyday [[spoken language]].
 
However, his brand of Hebrew followed norms that had been replaced in [[Eastern Europe]] by more modern grammar and style, in the writings of people like [[Asher Ginsberg|Achad Ha-Am]] and others. His organizational efforts and involvement with the establishment of schools and the writing of textbooks pushed the [[vernacular|vernacularization]] activity into a gradually accepted movement. It was not, however, until the 1904-1905 "[[Aliyah|Second aliyah]]" that Hebrew had caught real momentum in Ottoman Palestine with the new and better organized enterprises set forth by the new group of immigrants. When the [[British Mandate of Palestine]] recognized Hebrew as one of the country's three official languages (English, Arabic, and Hebrew, in 1922), its new formal status contributed to its diffusion.
 
===Hebaeg a-vremañ===
While many saw his work as fanciful or even blasphemous{{ref|blasphemy}}, many soon understood the need for a common language amongst Jews of pre-state Israel who at the turn of the [[20th century]] were arriving in large numbers from diverse countries and speaking different languages. A Committee of the Hebrew Language was established. Later it became the [[Academy of the Hebrew Language]], an organization that exists today. The results of his and the Committee's work were published in a dictionary (''The Complete Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew''). Ben-Yehuda's work fell on fertile ground, and by the beginning of the 20th century, Hebrew was well on its way to becoming the main language of the Jewish population of both Ottoman and British pre-State Israel.
 
 
==Rannyezhoù==
According to Ethnologue, dialects of Hebrew include Standard Hebrew (General Israeli, Europeanized Hebrew), Oriental Hebrew (Arabized Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew).
 
In practice, there is also [[Ashkenazi Hebrew language|Ashkenazi Hebrew]], still widely used in Ashkenazi Jewish religious services and studies in Israel and abroad. It was influenced by the [[Yiddish language]].
 
[[Sephardi Hebrew language|Sephardi Hebrew]] is the basis of Standard Hebrew and not all that different from it, although traditionally it has had a greater range of [[phoneme]]s. It was influenced by the [[Ladino language]].
 
[[Mizrahi Hebrew language|Mizrahi (Oriental) Hebrew]] is actually a collection of dialects (including [[Yemenite Hebrew language|Yemenite]]) spoken liturgically by Jews in various parts of the [[Arab]] and [[Islam|Islamic]] world. It was influenced by the [[Arabic language]].
 
Nearly every immigrant to Israel is encouraged to adopt Standard Hebrew as their daily language. Phonologically, this "dialect" may most accurately be described as an amalgam of pronunciations preserving Sephardic vowel sounds and Ashkenazic consonant sounds—its recurring feature being simplification of differences among a wide array of pronunciations. This simplifying tendency also accounts for the collapse of the Ashkenazic /t/ and /s/ pronunciations of unaspirated and aspirated ת into the single phoneme /t/. Most Sephardic dialects differentiated between these two pronunciations as /t/ and /θ/. Within Israel, the pronunciation of "Standard Hebrew", however, more often reflects the national or ethnic origin of the individual speaker, rather than the specific recommendations of the [[Academy of the Hebrew Language|Academy]]. For this reason, over half the population pronounces ר as {{unicode|[ʀ]}}, (a uvular trill, as in Yiddish and some varieties of [[German language|German]]) or as {{unicode|[ʁ]}} (a uvular fricative, as in [[French language|French]] or many varieties of German), rather than as [r], an apical trill, as in [[Spanish language|Spanish]]. The pronunciation of this phoneme is often used among Israelis as a [[shibboleth]], or determinant when ascertaining the national origin of perceived foreigners.
 
 
==Fonologiezh==
{{IPA notice}}
Hebrew has two kinds of [[lexical stress|stress]]: on the last syllable (''milra‘'') and on the penultimate syllable (the one preceding the last, ''mil‘el''). The former is more frequent. Specific rules connect the location of the stress with the length of the vowels in the last syllable; however due to the fact that Modern Hebrew does not distinguish between long and short vowels, these rules are often ignored in everyday speech. Interestingly enough, the rules that specify the [[vowel length]] are different for verbs and nouns, which influences the stress; thus the ''mil‘el''-stressed ''ókhel'' (="food") and ''milra‘''-stressed ''okhèl'' (="eats", masculine) are written in the same way. Little ambiguity exists, however, due to nouns and verbs having incompatible roles in normal sentences. This is, however, also true in English, in, for example, the English word "conduct," in its nominal and verbal forms.
 
===Vogalennoù===
[[Image:Hebrew vowel chart.svg|thumb|right|The vowel phonemes of Modern Israeli Hebrew]]
The Hebrew word for [[vowel]]s is ''tnu‘ot''. The marks for these vowels are called [[Niqqud]]. Modern Israeli Hebrew has 5 vowel [[phoneme]]s:
 
* /a/ (as in "car") - The vowels qamatz and patakh
* /e/ (as in "set") - The vowels seggol and tzereh
* /i/ (as in "beak")- The vowel khiriq
* /o/ (as in "horn")- The vowel kholam
* /u/ (as in "room")- The vowels shuruq and qubbutz
 
In [[Biblical Hebrew]], each vowel had three forms: short, long and interrupted (''hataf''). However, there is no audible distinction between the three in modern Israeli Hebrew.
 
Hebrew [[phonetics]] include a special feature called [[schwa | shva (schwa)]]. According to "Ha-Yesod, the Fundamentals of Hebrew" by Luba Uveeler and Norman M. Broznick, this feature is pronounced "Shva" and is spelled Shin Vav He. There are two kinds of shva: resting (''nax'') and moving (''na' ''). The resting shva is pronounced as a brief stop of speech. The moving shva sounds much like the English ''a'' in '''a'''bout.
 
Hebrew also has ''[[dagesh]],'' a strengthening. There are two kinds of strengthenings: light (''qal'', known also as ''dagesh lene'') and heavy (''hazaq'' or ''dagesh forte''). There are two sub-categories of the heavy dagesh: structural heavy (''hazaq tavniti'') and complementing heavy (''hazaq mashlim''). The light affects the phonemes /b/ /k/ /p/ in the beginning of a word, or after a resting schwa. Structural heavy emphases belong to certain vowel patterns (''mishkalim'' and ''binyanim''; see the section on grammar below), and correspond originally to doubled consonants. Complementing strengthening is added when [[assimilation (linguistics)|vowel assimilation]] takes place. As mentioned before, the emphasis influences which of a pair of (former) [[allophone]]s is pronounced. Interestingly enough, historical evidence indicates that /g/, /d/ and /t/ used to have strengthened versions of their own, however they had disappeared from virtually all the spoken dialects of Hebrew. All other consonants except [[guttural]]s may receive the heavy emphasis, as well.
 
One-letter words are always attached to the following word. Such words include: the definite [[article (grammar)|article]] ''h'' (="the"); [[preposition]]s ''b'' (="in"), ''m'' (="from"), ''l'' (="to"); [[Grammatical conjunction|conjunction]]s ''sh'' (="that"), ''k'' (="as", "like"), ''v'' (="and"). The vowel that follows the letter thus attached depends in general on the beginning of the next word and the presence of a definite article which may be swallowed by the one-letter word.
 
The rules for the prepositions are complicated and vary with the formality of speech. In most cases they are followed by a moving schwa, and for that reason they are pronounced as ''be'', ''me'' and ''le''. In more formal speech, if a preposition is put before a word which begins with a moving schwa, then the preposition takes the vowel /i/ (and the initial consonant is weakened), but in colloquial speech these changes do not occur. For example, colloquial ''be-kfar'' (="in a village") becomes ''bi-khfar''. If ''l'' or ''b'' are followed by the definite article ''ha'', their vowel changes to /a/. Thus *''be-ha-matos'' becomes ''ba-matos'' (="in the plane"). However it does not happen to ''m'', therefore ''me-ha-matos'' is a valid form, which means "from the plane".
 
:''* indicates that the given example is not grammatically correct''
 
===Kensonennoù===
The Hebrew word for consonants is ''‘itsurim'' (עיצורים).
 
{| border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse;"
|-
!
! colspan="2" | [[Bilabial]]
! colspan="2" | [[Labiodental]]
! colspan="2" | [[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]]
! colspan="2" | [[Postalveolar|Post]]-<br>[[Postalveolar|alveolar]] {{fn|1}}
![[Palatal]]
! colspan="2" | [[Velar]]
! colspan="2" | [[Uvular]]
! colspan="2" | [[Glottal]]
|- align=center
|[[Plosive|Stops]]
|[[voiceless bilabial plosive|{{IPA|p}}]] {{fn|2}}
|[[voiced bilabial plosive|{{IPA|b}}]] {{fn|2}}
| colspan="2" |
|[[voiceless alveolar plosive|{{IPA|t}}]]
|[[voiced alveolar plosive|{{IPA|d}}]]
| colspan="2" |
|
|[[voiceless velar plosive|{{IPA|k}}]] {{fn|2}}
|[[voiced velar plosive|{{IPA|g}}]]
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |[[glottal stop|{{IPA|ʔ}}]]
|- align=center
|[[Fricative]]s
| colspan="2" |
|[[voiceless labiodental fricative|{{IPA|f}}]] {{fn|2}}
|[[voiced labiodental fricative|{{IPA|v}}]] {{fn|2}}
|[[voiceless alveolar fricative|{{IPA|s}}]]
|[[voiced alveolar fricative|{{IPA|z}}]]
|[[voiceless postalveolar fricative|{{IPA|ʃ}}]]
|[[voiced postalveolar fricative|{{IPA|ʒ}}]]
|
| colspan="2" |[[voiceless velar fricative|{{IPA|x}}]] {{fn|2}}
| colspan="2" |[[voiced uvular fricative|{{IPA|ʁ}}]]
|[[voiceless glottal fricative|{{IPA|h}}]]
|
|- align=center
|[[Affricate]]s
| colspan="2" |
|
|
|[[voiceless alveolar affricate|{{IPA|ʦ}}]]
|
|[[voiceless postalveolar affricate|{{IPA|ʧ}}]]
|[[voiced postalveolar affricate|{{IPA|ʤ}}]]
|
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
|
|
|- align=center
|[[Nasal]]s
| colspan="2" |[[bilabial nasal|{{IPA|m}}]]
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |[[alveolar nasal|{{IPA|n}}]]
| colspan="2" |
|
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
|- align=center
|[[Lateral]]s
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |[[alveolar lateral approximant|{{IPA|l}}]]
| colspan="2" |
|
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
|- align=center
|[[Approximant]]s
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
|[[palatal approximant|{{IPA|j}}]]
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
| colspan="2" |
|}
 
ע was once pronounced as a [[voiced pharyngeal fricative]]. Modern [[Ashkenazi]] (Northern and Eastern European Jews) reading tradition ignores this; however, [[Mizrahi Jew|Mizrahi]] (Middle Eastern and North African Jews) and Israeli Arabs accent these phonemes in a traditional semitic fashion which resembles [[Arabic language|Arabic]] `ain ع. Georgian Jews pronounce it as a glottalized g. Western European [[Sephardim]] and Dutch [[Ashkenazi]]m traditionally pronounce it {{IPA|[ŋ]}} (like ''ng'' in ''sing'') — a pronunciation which can also be found in the [[Italki]] tradition and, historically, in south-west Germany.
 
{{fnb|1}} Postalveolar sounds (with the exception of {{IPA|/ʃ/}}) are not native to Hebrew, and only found in borrowings.
 
{{fnb|2}} The pairs (/b/, /v/), (/k/, /x/), (/p/, /f/), written respectively by the letters bet (ב), kaf (כ) and pe (פ) have historically been allophonic. In Modern Hebrew, however, all six sounds are phonemic, due to mergers involving formerly distinct sounds (/v/ merging with /w/, /k/ merging with /q/, /x/ merging with {{IPA|/ħ/}}), loss of consonant gemination (which formerly distinguished the stop members of the pairs from the fricatives when intervocalic), and the introduction of syllable-initial /f/ through foreign borrowings.
 
 
==Yezhadur==
'''Hebrew grammar''' is mostly [[analytic language|analytical]], expressing such forms as [[dative case|dative]], [[ablative case|ablative]], and [[accusative case|accusative]] using [[preposition]]al particles rather than [[grammatical case]]s. However inflection does play an important role in the formation of the verbs, nouns and the [[genitive case|genitive]] construct, which is called "smikhut". Words in smikhut are often combined with [[hyphen]]s.
-->
== Skritur ==
== Liammoù diavaez ==
{{InterWiki|he}}
* [http://www.ethnologue.org/show_language.asp?code=heb Ethnologue report for Hebrew]
* [http://hebrew-academy.huji.ac.il/english.html AcademyAkademiezh ofan Hebrew LanguageHebraeg], the Institute which prescribes standards for modern Hebrew grammar, orthography, transliteration, and punctuation based upon the study of Hebrew's historical development.
* Istor
* History of the Hebrew Language
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/history_of_hebrew.htm History of the Hebrew Language Steinberg]
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/rabin_he.htm Short History of the Hebrew Language Rabin]
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/israeli_hebrew_tene.htm Israeli Hebrew Tene]
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/israel_lang_policy_rosen.htm Israel Language Policy and Linguistics Rosén]
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/hebrew_words_history.htm Words and their History Kutscher]
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/hebrew_slang_sappan.htm Hebrew Slang and Foreign Loan Words Sappan ]
* Yezhadurioù
* Grammars
** [http://foundationstone.com.au/HtmlSupport/FrameSupport/onlineHebrewTutorialFrame.html Online Hebrew Tutorial] (foundationstone)
** [http://perso.wanadoo.fr/babel-site/ Hebrew is easy] (babel-site)
** [http://www.adath-shalom.ca/gk_cont.htm Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar]
** [http://www.hebrew-verbs.co.il Learn Hebrew Verbs]
* Geriadurioù saozneg-hebraeg
* Dictionaries
** [http://www.hebrewatmilah.org/maskilon1/index.htm Root-based] (Maskilon)
** [http://milon.morfix.co.il/ Word-search] English-Hebrew and Hebrew-English (Morfix)
** [http://www.hebrewatmilah.org/maskilon3/index.htm Hebrew-English] (Maskilon)
** [http://www.faithofgod.net/davar/ Hebrew-English] (DAVAR freeware, english)
** [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/Hebrew-english/ Hebrew-English] (Webster's Rosetta Edition)
** [http://www.hebrewatmilah.org/maskilon4/index.htm English-Hebrew] (Maskilon)
** [http://www.dictionary.co.il English-Hebrew] (My Hebrew Dictionary)
** [http://www.jewishdictionary.co.il/ English-Hebew] (Jewish Dictionary)
* Dre vras
* General
** [http://www.yiwoodmere.org/library/cybrary/hebrew.html Learning Hebrew - Links], Young Israel
** [http://www.yomanim.com Hebrew Writings and Diaries]
** [http://infoshare1.princeton.edu/katmandu/hebrew/atoc.html Hebrew Abbreviationshtm], [[Princeton University]] Library
** [http://www.mikledet.com Mikledet.com]: Send Hebrew emails without having a Hebrew keyboard.
** [http://www.amhaaretz.org/translit/ Hebrew translit]: type in Hebrew using an English keyboard
 
==Notennoù ha daveoù==
[[Rummad:Yezhoù kananek]]
[[Rummad:Hebraeg]]
 
{{Liamm PuB|el}}
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