Ganet eo bet d'an [[22 a viz Gwengolo]] []. Aet eo da Anaon d'ar [[17 a viz Gouere]] [].
Ar priñs Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm oa mab an impalaer Thiệu Trị. Kemer a reas an anv a Tự Đức pa gemeras plas e dad war an tron. Kregiñ a reas reuz e vro rak n'en doa ket Thiệu Trị doujet ouzh gwirioù e vab henañ Hồng Bảo, habaskoc'h, evit reiñ an tron da Dự Đức,
koñfusiat start, enebour d'an estrenien ha d'an nevezintioù. Abalamour da bolitikerezh gwaskus an impalaer kozh e oa kalz a dud drouklaouen gant renadur ar familh Nguyễn ha kavout a reas ar re-mañ ur rener reizh gant Hồng Bảo.
Liesseurt oa ar e a savas enep Tự Đức : gouizieien koñfusiat a gzve direizh ne vije ket bet sentet ouzh urzhaz ar familh, tud a chome aduidi ar rummad-impalaerien Lê gwelet ganto evel renerien reizh Vietnam
2.1 Conflict with Hồng Bảo
2.2 Religious suppression
2.3 European conquest
Prince Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Bảo became the leader of a rebellion against , consisting of Confucian scholars who were angered that the family hierarchy had been dishonored (by passing over the eldest son) some remaining supporters of the Dynasty (who many still considered the legitimate dynasty of Vietnam) as well as the usual peasants angry over Nguyễn taxation and the usual corrupt mandarins as well as the Roman Catholic missionaries and Christian converts who had been so persecuted by Minh Mạng and Thiệu Trị. With swift military force, Tự Đức suppressed the rebellion and was set to execute his brother, but was dissuaded by his mother, Dowager queen Từ Dũ, and Hồng Bảo killed himself in prison.
Tomb of Emperor Tự Đức
Vietnamese Tự Đức
Vietnamese alphabet Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm
Emperor Tự Đức continued the policies of his predecessors, shutting Vietnam off from the outside world and refusing all efforts to modernize the country. Accounts of his personal life show a gentle and educated man, but his policies brought on conflict with Europe that Vietnam could not win. He oppressed all foreigners in Vietnam, especially the Christian community, who had frequently tried to overthrow his ancestors, such as in the Lê Văn Khôi revolt, calling their religion a "perverse doctrine". The Christian mandarin Nguyễn Trường Tộ tried to convince Tự Đức that this was a suicidal policy, but he did not listen, confident that France was too involved with the chaos in Europe in 1848 to respond, but he was mistaken.
France responded with a large military expeditionary force and attacked up from southern Vietnam. The Nguyễn army fought bravely for some time, but their antiquated weapons and tactics were no match for the French, who suffered more from the climate and disease than from enemy resistance. With French forces moving closer against him, Tự Đức called upon his Manchu over-lord, the Qing Emperor, for help and so ensued the Sino-French War. The fighting around Hanoi against China and the Black Flag pirates ended with France victorious and China gave up their position as feudal master of Vietnam and recognized France as the ruling power over the region.