Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "C'hwezhadur (yezhoniezh)"

achu
D
(achu)
{{LabourAChom}}
 
Er [[yezhoniezh]] e vez implijet an termen '''c'hwezhadur''' ([[Saozneg|saoz.]]: [[:en:Aspiration (phonetics)|''aspiration'']]) war dachenn ar [[fonetik]] hag ar [[fonologiezh]] evit komz eus ur ur prantadig [[Mouezh (yezhoniezh)|divouezh]] pe ur prantadig [[c'hwezhadur (yezhoniezh)|c'hwezhadur]] $$a-raok fazenn serradur ur [[kensonenn dre serriñ|gensonenn dre serriñ]].
 
Er [[yezhoniezh]] e vez implijet an termen '''c'hwezhadur''' ([[Saozneg|saoz.]]: [[:en:Aspiration (phonetics)|''aspiration'']]) war dachenn ar [[fonetik]] hag ar [[fonologiezh]] evit komz eus ur ur[kensonenn prantadigdre [[Mouezhserriñ|gensonenn (yezhoniezh)|divouezhdre serriñ]] pe ur prantadig [[c'hwezhadurkensonenn (yezhoniezh)kendistaget|c'hwezhadurkendistaget]] $$a-raokdre fazenn serradur urc'hwezhañ [[kensonennaer]] dre serriñ|gensonennar dre serriñ]]genoù.
In [[phonetics]], '''aspiration''' is the strong burst of [[Earth's atmosphere|air]] that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some [[obstruent]]s. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or her mouth, and say ''tore'' ({{IPA|[tʰɔɹ]}}) and then ''store'' ({{IPA|[stɔɹ]}}). One should either feel a puff of air or see a flicker of the candle flame with ''tore'' that one does not get with ''store''. In English, the ''t'' should be aspirated in ''tore'' and unaspirated in ''store''.
 
Kreñv pe greñvoc'h a c'hell bezañ ar c'hwezhadur, o kemmañ a [[yezh]] da yezh.
The diacritic for aspiration in the [[International Phonetic Alphabet]] is a superscript "h", {{IPA|[ʰ]}} . Unaspirated consonants are not normally marked explicitly, but there is a diacritic for non-aspiration in the [[Extended IPA]], the superscript equal sign, {{IPA|[⁼]}}.
 
Skrivet e vez [ʰ] hervez reolennoù treuzskrivañ al [[LFE|lizherenneg fonetikel etrebroadel]]. Implijet e c'hell bezañ ivez ar [[sinoù diakritek|sin diakritek]] ispisial [⁼] evit diskwel n'emañ ket c'hwezhet ur gensonenn mar bez ezhomm.
[[Voiceless]] consonants are produced with the [[vocal cords]] open. (Voicing involves bringing the vocal cords close together.) Voiceless aspiration occurs when the vocal cords remain open after a consonant is released. An easy way to measure this is by noting the consonant's [[voice onset time]], as the voicing of a following vowel cannot begin until the vocal cords close. However, aspirated consonants are not always followed by vowels or other voiced sounds; indeed, in Eastern [[Armenian language|Armenian]], aspiration is contrastive even at the ends of words:
 
Ar c'hwezhadur a c'hell bezañ ur perzh liammet ouzh [[alofonenn|alofonennoù]] resis, evel e [[saozneg]] ma vez distaget dre c'hwezhañ atav an holl kensonennoù dre serriñ [[mouezh (yezhoniezh)|divouezh]] e penn-kentañ ur [[ger]], pe gallout a ra talvezout da diforc'hañ [[fonemenn|fonemennoù]] evel e meur a [[yezhoù indezek|yezh indezek]], da skouer an [[hindeg]].
 
C'hwezhet e c'hell bezañ kensonennoù [[mouezh (yezhoniezh)|mouezhiet]] kouzl ha [[mouezh (yezhoniezh)|divouezh]] ha gallout a ra c'hoarvezout e penn-kentañ, e kreiz pe zoken e diwezh ur ger, da skouer en [[armenieg]]:
 
{| class="wikitable"
!colspan=2|Final aspiration in E. Armenian
|-
|{{IPA|bard͡z}}||''pillow''"goubenner"
|-
|{{IPA|bart͡s⁼}}||''difficult''"diaez"
|-
|{{IPA|bart͡sʰ}}||''high''"uhel"
|}
 
[[English language|English]] [[voiceless]] [[stop consonant]]s are aspirated when they are word-initial or begin a [[stressed syllable]], as in ''pen'', ''ten'', ''Ken'', but this is not distinctive. That is, these consonants have unaspirated variants in other positions, such as word-finally or in an initial cluster with [s], as in ''spun'', ''stun'', ''skunk''. In many languages, such as the [[Chinese language]]s, [[Hindi]], [[Icelandic language|Icelandic]], [[Korean language|Korean]], [[Thai language|Thai]], and [[Ancient Greek]], {{IPA|[p⁼ t⁼ k⁼]}} ''etc.'' and {{IPA|[pʰ tʰ kʰ]}} ''etc.'' are different [[phoneme]]s altogether.
 
[[Alemannic German|Alemannic German dialects]] have unaspirated {{IPA|[p⁼ t⁼ k⁼]}} as well as aspirated {{IPA|[pʰ tʰ kʰ]}}; the latter series are usually viewed as [[consonant cluster]]s. In [[Danish language|Danish]] and most southern varieties of [[German language|German]], the "[[Fortis and lenis|lenis]]" consonants transcribed for historical reasons as {{IPA|<b d g>}} are distinguished them from their "[[Fortis and lenis|fortis]]" counterparts {{IPA|<p t k>}} mainly in their lack of aspiration.
 
[[Icelandic language|Icelandic]] has '''[[Preaspiration|pre-aspirated]]''' {{IPA|[ʰp ʰt ʰk]}}; some scholars interpret these as consonant clusters as well. Preaspirated stops also occur in some [[Sami languages]]; e.g. in [[Skolt Sami]] the unvoiced stop phonemes {{IPA|p}}, {{IPA|t}}, {{IPA|c}}, {{IPA|k}} are pronounced preaspirated ({{IPA|ʰp}}, {{IPA|ʰt}} {{IPA|ʰc}} {{IPA|ʰk}}) when they occur in medial or final postion.
 
There are degrees of aspiration. Armenian and Cantonese have aspiration that lasts about as long as English aspirated stops, as well as unaspirated stops like Spanish. Korean has lightly aspirated stops that fall between the Armenian and Cantonese unaspirated and aspirated stops, as well as strongly aspirated stops whose aspiration lasts longer than that of Armenian or Cantonese. (See [[voice onset time]].) An old IPA symbol for light aspiration was {{IPA|[ ʻ ]}} (that is, like a rotated ejective symbol), but this is no longer commonly used. There is no specific symbol for strong aspiration, but {{IPA|[ʰ]}} can be iconically doubled for, say, Korean *{{IPA|[kʻ ]}} vs. *{{IPA|[kʰʰ]}}. Note however that Korean is nearly universally transcribed as {{IPA|[k]}} vs. {{IPA|[kʰ]}}, with the details of voice onset time given numerically.
 
Aspiration also varies with [[place of articulation]]. Spanish /p t k/, for example, have voice onset times (VOTs) of about 5, 10, and 30 milliseconds, whereas English /p t k/ have VOTs of about 60, 70, and 80 ms. Korean has been measured at 20, 25, and 50 ms for {{IPA|/p t k/}} and 90, 95, and 125 for {{IPA|/pʰ tʰ kʰ/}}.
 
The word 'aspiration' and the aspiration symbol is sometimes used with voiced stops, such as {{IPA|[dʰ]}}. However, such "voiced aspiration", also known as [[breathy voice|''breathy voice'' or ''murmur'']], is less ambiguously transcribed with dedicated diacritics, either {{IPA|[d̤]}} or {{IPA|[dʱ]}}. (Some linguists restrict the subscript diacritic {{IPA|[  ̤]}} to [[sonorant]]s, such as [[vowel]]s and [[nasal consonant]]s, which are murmured throughout their duration, and use the superscript {{IPA|[ʱ]}} for the murmured release of obstruents.) When it is included as aspiration, voiceless aspiration is called just that to avoid ambiguity.
 
 
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