Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Istor Belize"

5 680 okted lamet ,  1 bloaz zo
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
Tikedennoù : Kemmañ gant an hezoug Kemmañ dre ar web hezoug
[[Restr:Belize.AltunHa.Panorama.01.jpg|thumbnailthumb|250pxupright=2|right| Temploù Altun Ha ]]
Meur a vil bloaz zo e krogkrogas an Istor e [[Belize]].
== A-raok donedigezh tud [[Europa|Europiz]] ==
Er rannved ma m'emañ [[Belize]] e veve ar bobl [[maya]]. Ganet e voe ar [[sevenadur]] maya e ledenez [[Yucatan]] , hag alese en em ledas etrezek ar c'hreisteiz, Belize a vremañ, etre ar XVIvet hag ar IVvet kantved kent JK. <br>
Gounideien-douar e oa ar MayaVayaed. Ed-Turki, fav, pebr, [[kakao]] a c'hounezent. Dre ma'z ae o sevenadur war ziorren e voe savet ganto tier mein. O [[matematik]] hag o steredoniezh a oa pell dirak re ar pobloù all.
Er rannved ma emañ [[Belize]] e veve ar bobl [[maya]]. Ganet e voe ar sevenadur maya e ledenez [[Yucatan]] , hag alese en em ledas etrezek ar c'hreisteiz, Belize a vremañ, etre ar XVIvet hag ar IVvet kantved kent JK.
Gounideien-douar e oa ar Maya. Ed-Turki, fav, pebr, [[kakao]] a c'hounezent. Dre ma'z ae o sevenadur war ziorren e voe savet ganto tier mein. O matematik hag o steredoniezh a oa pell dirak re ar pobloù all.
== Monumantoù ==
E Belize e kaver kêrioù maya evel [[Altun Ha]], [[Caracol, Belize|Caracol]], [[Cahal Pech]], [[Lamanai]], [[Lubaantun]], [[Nim Li Punit]], [[Santa Rita, Belize|Santa Rita]], ha [[Xunantunich]].
== EuropeizEuropiz ==
Kentañ darempred gant EuropeizEuropiz a voe e [[1502]], pa verdeas [[KristofKristol KolombGoulm]] a-hed aodoù Belize , hep aochañ avat.
]. [[Pottery]], fabric making, [[stone work]], and [[architecture]] grew to a sophisticated level as their civilization progressed. Their achievements in [[mathematics]] and [[astronomy]] were advanced well beyond other comparable cultures of the time.
The [[Mesoamerican chronology|Classic period]] sites flourished until about the 13th century, and suggest that the area had a much denser population in that period than it has had since. Post-Classic sites continued until contact with Europeans.
==First European contact==
European contact began in 1502, when [[Christopher Columbus]] sailed along the coast of Belize but did not land on shore.
In 1511, the first Europeans set foot on what is now Belize: a small crew of [[shipwreck]]ed Spanish sailors, who landed in what is now northern Belize. The group's [[galleon]] had run aground on the Alacranes reef near Cabo Catoche. Twenty people were washed ashore, and most of those were immediately captured by the Mayas and later [[Human sacrifice|sacrificed]] or taken as [[Slavery|slaves]]. One of the prisoners, Gonzalo Guerrero, later [[Defection|defected]] to the Mayas, and married into a noble Mayan family. Guerrero married the daughter of Nachankan, the chief of [[Chetumal]], and assumed the Mayan way of life. He and his wife had three children, who were the first [[mestizo]]s (mixed American-European ethnicity).
Though tradition has it that European settlement began in 1638, there are no historical records of Europeans staying year-round in the area until the 1670s. These early "Baymen" were drawn by the large stands of logwood, a valuable tree whose sapwood was widely used in Europe to dye clothing. In the early 1700s, mahogany also became a valuable export. Over the next 150 years, more English settlements were established. This period also was marked by [[piracy]], indiscriminate [[logging]], and sporadic attacks by Indians and neighboring Spanish settlements.
==The British arrive==
{{main|British Honduras}}
The [[Spain|Spanish Empire]] granted the [[Kingdom of Great Britain|United Kingdom]] rights to establish logging camps in the area, but not to set up a colony on this land, which the Spanish Crown wished to maintain theoretical sovereignty over. While not an official British colony, British use and occupation of the area increased. In 1798, the United Kingdom and Spain went to war, and the Spanish Governor-General of [[Yucatán]] sent a fleet of 32 ships to seize the British settlements. From [[September 3]] through [[September 10]] a series of battles was fought around the islands and reefs off the Belizean coast, after which the Spanish forces withdrew. This is known as ''The Battle of [[St. George's Caye]]'', and is celebrated as a national holiday each [[September 10]].
The United Kingdom first sent an official representative to the area in the late 18th century but Belize was not formally termed the '''Colony of British Honduras''' until 1840. It became a ''[[Crown Colony]]'' in 1871.
In the second half of the 19th century many refugees from the [[Caste War of Yucatán]] settled in the northern part of the colony.
According to the 1904 [[census]] of British Honduras, the principal towns of the colony at the time had the following populations: [[Belize City]]: 9969; [[Stann Creek Town]]: 2459; [[Corozal Town]]: 1696; [[Orange Walk Town]]: 1244; [[Punta Gorda, Belize|Punta Gorda]]: 706; [[San Ignacio Cayo]]: 421; [[Monkey River Town|Monkey River]]: 384; and [[Mullins River]]: 243.
In the 20th century, several constitutional changes were enacted to expand representative government. Full internal self-government under a ministerial system was granted in January 1964. The official name of the territory was changed from British Honduras to [[Belize]] in June 1973.
The government of [[Guatemala]] long claimed that Belize was rightfully Guatemalan territory, supposedly inheriting rights to the land from the Spanish Crown. Fear of invasion by Guatemala long delayed the independence of Belize. Finally the United Kingdom agreed to defend Belize from invasion if necessary after independence; this agreement led to full official independence granted on [[September 21]], [[1981]], under the leadership of long time Prime Minister and independence advocate [[George Cadle Price|George Price]]. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1991.
[[Belize City]] was hit badly by a hurricane in 1931, and suffered even more severe damage from [[Hurricane Hattie]] in 1961. This resulted in the creation of two new towns. The first was [[Hattieville]], just inland from Belize City, which was originally intended as a temporary shelter for those made homeless by the hurricane, but which grew into a permanent town. The second was [[Belmopan]], a community planned as the new capital of Belize, well inland and near the center of the country. The building of [[Belmopan]] began in 1962, and in 1971 the Belizean House of Representatives began meeting there. Although no longer the capital, Belize City remains the nation's largest city and port. In the 1990s a new [[sea port]] was built at [[Big Creek, Belize|Big Creek]], which soon became the second most important port after Belize City.
[[Tourism]] has become the mainstay of the [[economics|economy]]. The country remains plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American [[drug trade]], and increased urban crime in Belize City.
''Some of the material in an earlier version of this article comes from the [[CIA World Factbook]] 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.''
== Pennad kar ==
== Liammoù ==
*{{en}} [http://www.rulers.org/rulb1.html#belize Rulers.org — Belize] Listenn stadrenerien Belize]
1 383