Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Imhotep"

5 699 okted lamet ,  2 vloaz zo
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
D (→‎Engineering and architecture : replaced: y h → y h using AWB)
 
{|class="infobox" style="width:120px; border:1px solid #fc0;"
[[Skeudenn:Imhotep-Louvre.JPG|thumb|Delwennig eus Imhotep e [[mirdi al Louvre]]]]
|-
[[Skeudenn:Imhotep.JPG|right|thumb|Skeudenn all eus ar memes delwennig]]
{{Infobox/Titl|Imhotep|fc0|talbenn defaut|930}}
<div style="float:right">{{hiero|Imhotep|<hiero>M18-m-R4 </hiero>}}</div>
|-bgcolor="#ffffde" valign="top" align="center"
 
<div |style="floatcolor:right#930;">{{hiero|Imhotep|<hiero>M18-m-R4 </hiero>}}</div>
'''Imhotep''' ([[henegipteg]] ''ii-m-ḥtp'', ''*jā-im-ḥatāp'' da lâret eo "An hini a zeu e peoc'h") a oa ur gouizieg [[Henegipt|Egiptat]],<ref>[http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/436803 The Egyptian Building Mania], ''Acta Divrna'', levrenn III, IVe embannadur, miz Genver 2004.</ref> a veve dindan an [[IIIe tierniezh Henegipt|III{{e}} tierniezh]] hag a servije ar faraon [[Djoser]], evel [[kañseller]] hag a oa beleg bras doue an heol ([[Ra]]) e [[Heliopolis]]. Sellet e vez outañ evel ar c'hentañ [[ijinouriezh|ijinour]]<ref>[http://whatiscivilengineering.csce.ca/history_engineering.htm title=What is Civil Engineering: Imhotep]</ref>, [[tisavouriezh|tisavour]] ha [[fizik]]our en istor zo anavet dre e anv<ref>William Osler, ''The Evolution of Modern Medicine'', Kessinger Publishing 2004, p.12</ref>. Roll klok e ditloù a oa : ''Kañseller faraon Goueled Egipt, an hin kentañ goude faraon Gorre Egipt, merour ar palez bras, noblañs dre hêrezh, beleg bras Heliopolis, saver, penn ar gilvizien, penn ar gizellerien ha saver listri bras''. Imhotep a oa unan eus an nebeut tud vev a oa diskouezet war delwenn ur faraon. Emañ e-touez un dornad tud a oa lakaet e renk an doueed goude o marv en [[Henegipt]]. Emedo kreiz e gehelerezh e [[Menfis]]. Adalek ar c'hentañ [[kentañ marevezh etre Henegipt|c'hentañ marevezh etre]] e oa sellet outañ ive evel ur barzh hag ur prederour. Graet e veze anv eus e gomzoù e barzhonegoù : "''Klevet em eus gerioù Imhotep hag Hordedef ...<!-- with whose discourses men speak so much -->.''"<ref>Barry J. Kemp, ''Ancient Egypt'' Routledge 2005, p.159</ref>
|}
'''Imhotep''' ([[henegipteg]] ''ii-m-ḥtp'', ''*jā-im-ḥatāp'' da lâret eo "An hini a zeu e peoc'h") a oa ur gouizieg [[Henegipt|Egiptat]],<ref>[http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/436803 ''The Egyptian Building Mania''], ''Acta Divrna'', levrenn III, IVe embannadur, miz Genver 2004.</ref> a veve dindan an [[IIIe tierniezh Henegipt|III{{e}} tierniezh]] hag a servije ar faraon [[Djoser]], evel [[kañseller]] hag a oa beleg bras doue an heol ([[Ra]]) e [[Heliopolis]]. Sellet e vez outañ evel ar c'hentañ [[ijinouriezh|ijinour]]<!-- <ref>[http://whatiscivilengineering.csce.ca/history_engineering.htm title=''What is Civil Engineering: Imhotep'']</ref> -- Liamm torr 13 Here 2019 -->, [[tisavouriezh|tisavour]] ha [[fizik]]our en istor zo anavet dre e anv<ref>William Osler, ''The Evolution of Modern Medicine'', Kessinger Publishing 2004, p.12</ref>. Roll klok e ditloù a oa : ''Kañseller faraon Goueled Egipt, an hin kentañ goude faraon Gorre Egipt, merour ar palez bras, noblañs dre hêrezh, beleg bras Heliopolis, saver, penn ar gilvizien, penn ar gizellerien ha saver listri bras''. Imhotep a oa unan eus an nebeut tud vev a oa diskouezet war delwenn ur faraon. Emañ e-touez un dornad tud a oa lakaet e renk an doueed goude o marv en [[Henegipt]]. Emedo kreiz e gehelerezh e [[Menfis]]. Adalek ar c'hentañ [[kentañ marevezh etre Henegipt|c'hentañ marevezh etre]] e oa sellet outañ ive evel ur barzh hag ur prederour. Graet e veze anv eus e gomzoù e barzhonegoù : "''Klevet em eus gerioù Imhotep hag Hordedef ...<!-- with whose discourses men speak so much -->.''"<ref>Barry J. Kemp, ''Ancient Egypt'' Routledge 2005, p.159</ref>
 
Abaoe an henamzer ne ouzer ket ken e-pelec'h emañ bez Imhotep<ref>[http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/harpers_lay.htm The Harper's Lay, 2000 kent J.-K.]</ref> ha n'eo ket bet adkavet c'hoazh, daoust d'ar strivoù a oa graet. Emeur a-du peurliesañ evit lavaret emañ e [[Sakkara]].
<gallery mode="packed" heights="250px" style="margin-top:20px;">
 
[[Skeudenn:Imhotep-Louvre.JPG|thumb|Delwennig eus Imhotep e <br>[[mirdiMirdi al Louvre]]]]
<!-- ==Attribution of achievements and inventions==
[[Skeudenn:Imhotep.JPG|right|thumb|Skeudenn all eus ar memes delwennig]]
Most "known" information about him is hear-say and conjecture. {{Fact|date=January 2008}} The ancient Egyptians credited him with many inventions. For example, it is claimed that he invented the [[papyrus]] scroll,{{Fact|date=October 2007}} being its oldest known bearer. James Henry Breasted says of Imhotep:
</gallery>
 
==Notennoù==
<blockquote>"In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this remarkable figure of Zoser's reign left so notable a reputation that his name was never forgotten. He was the [[patron]] spirit of the later [[scribes]], to whom they regularly poured out a libation from the water-jug of their writing outfit before beginning their work."</blockquote>
{{Daveoù}}
 
===Engineering and architecture===
As one of the officials of the [[Pharaoh]], [[Djoser|Djosèr]], he probably designed the [[Pyramid of Djoser]] (the [[Step Pyramid]]) at [[Saqqara]] in [[History of ancient Egypt|Egypt]] around [[27th century BC|2630]]-[[27th century BC|2611 BC]] <ref>Barry J. Kemp, ''Ancient Egypt'', Routledge 2005, p.159</ref>. He may have been responsible for the first known use of [[column]]s in [[architecture]].
As an instigator of Egyptian culture, Imhotep's idealized image lasted well into the Ptolemaic period. The Egyptian historian [[Manetho]] credited him with inventing the method of a stone-dressed building during Djoser's reign, however he was not the first to actually build with stone. Stone walling, flooring, lintels, and jambs had appeared sporadically during the [[Archaic Period]], though it is true that a building of the [[Step Pyramid]]'s size and made entirely out of stone had never before been constructed.
 
===Medicine===
Imhotep is credited{{Fact|date=October 2007}} with being the founder of [[Ancient Egyptian medicine|Egyptian medicine]] and with being the author of a medical treatise remarkable for being devoid of magical thinking, the so-called [[Edwin Smith papyrus]] containing [[anatomy|anatomical]] observations, ailments, and cures. The surviving papyrus was probably written around [[1700 BC]] but may be a copy of texts a thousand years older. This attribution of authorship is speculative, however.<ref>Leonard Francis Peltier, ''Fractures: A History and Iconography of Their Treatment'', Norman Publishing 1990, p.16</ref>
 
==Birth myths==
According to myth Imhotep's mother was a mortal named ''Kheredu-ankh'', elevated later to semi-divine status by claims that she was the daughter of Banebdjedet.<ref>Marina Warner, Felipe Fernández-Armesto, ''World of Myths'', University of Texas Press 2003, ISBN 0-292-70204-3, p.296</ref> Conversely, as the "Son of Ptah",<ref>Miriam Lichtheim, ''Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings'', University of California Press 1980, ISBN 0-520-04020-1, p.106</ref> his mother was sometimes claimed to be [[Sekhmet]], the patron of [[Upper Egypt]] whose consort Ptah was often said to be.
 
==Deification==
As Imhotep was considered the inventor of healing, he was also sometimes said to be the one who held up the goddess [[Nut (goddess)|Nut]] (the deification of the sky), as the separation of Nut and [[Geb]] (the deification of the earth) was said to be what held back [[chaos]]. Due to the position this would have placed him in, he was also sometimes said to be Nut's son. In artwork he also is linked with the great goddess, [[Hathor]], who eventually became identified as the wife of [[Ra]]. He also was associated with [[Maat]], the goddess who personified the concept of truth, cosmic order, and justice—having created order out of chaos and being responsible for maintaining it. Also After Death people believed Imhotep became a god.
 
Two thousand years after his death, his status was raised to that of a [[god|deity]]. He became the god of [[medicine]] and [[healing]]. He later was linked to [[Asclepius]] by the [[Ancient Greece|Greek]]s. He was associated with [[Amenhotep son of Hapu]], who was another deified architect, in the region of [[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]] where they were worshipped as "brothers".<ref>M. Lichtheim, ''Ancient Egyptian Literature'', The University of California Press 1980, vol.3, p.104</ref>
 
== Legacy ==
The ''Encyclopedia Britannica'' says, "The evidence afforded by Egyptian and Greek texts support the view that Imhotep's reputation was very respected in early times... His prestige increased with the lapse of centuries and his temples in Greek times were the centers of medical teachings."
 
It is Imhotep, says Sir William Osler, who was the real 'Father of Medicine', "the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity."
 
In the 1999 film [[The Mummy (1999 film)|''The Mummy'']] and sequels, the mummy and most of his historical background are based loosely on the real-life Imhotep.
 
== Imhotep and the Joseph of the Old Testament==
The Upper Egyptian [[Famine Stela]], dating from the Ptolemaic period, bears an inscription containing a legend about a famine of seven years during the reign of [[Djoser]]. [[Imhotep]] is credited with having been instrumental in ending it: one of his priests explained the connection between the god [[Khnum]] and the rise of the Nile to the king, who then had a dream in which the Nile god spoke to him, promising to end the drought. <ref>Erik Hornung, ''The Secret Lore of Egypt: Its Impact on the West'', Cornell University Press 2001, ISBN 0-8014-3847-0, p.50</ref> The parallels with the biblical story of Joseph have long been commented upon.<ref> Vandier, ''La Famine dans l Egypte ancienne''</ref> More recently, the Joseph parallels have led some alternative historians to identify Imhotep with Joseph, and to argue that the supposedly thousand years separating them are indicative of a faulty chronology.<ref>Emmet Sweeney, ''The Genesis of Israel and Egypt'', London, 1997</ref> -->
 
== References ==
{{reflist}}
 
[[Rummad:Doueed Henegipt]]
Implijer dizanv