Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Neutralizadur"

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D
lañs
(Adkas war-du Fonologiezh)
D (lañs)
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#REDIRECT[[Fonologiezh]]
 
Er [[yezhoniezh]] e vez implijet an termen '''liveadur''' ([[saozneg|saoz.]]: ''neutralisation'') war tachenn ar [[fonologiezh]] hag ar [[fonetik]] evit komz eus ar fed ma
 
Phonemes that are contrastive in certain environments may not be contrastive in all environments. In the environments where they don't contrast, the contrast is said to be neutralized.
 
In English there are three nasal phonemes, /m, n, ŋ/, as shown by the minimal triplet,
 
/sʌm/ sum
/sʌn/ sun
/sʌŋ/ sung
 
However, with rare exceptions, these sounds are not contrastive before plosives such as /p, t, k/ within the same morpheme. Although all three phones appear before plosives, for example in limp, lint, link, only one of these may appear before each of the plosives. That is, the /m, n, ŋ/ distinction is neutralized before each of the plosives /p, t, k/:
 
* Only /m/ occurs before /p/,
* only /n/ before /t/, and
* only /ŋ/ before /k/.
 
Thus these phonemes are not contrastive in these environments, and according to some theorists, there is no evidence as to what the underlying representation might be. If we hypothesize that we are dealing with only a single underlying nasal, there is no reason to pick one of the three phonemes /m, n, ŋ/ over the other two.
 
(In some languages there is only one phonemic nasal anywhere, and due to obligatory assimilation, it surfaces as [m, n, ŋ] in just these environments, so this idea is not as far-fetched as it might seem at first glance.)
 
In certain schools of phonology, such a neutralized distinction is known as an archiphoneme (Nikolai Trubetzkoy of the Prague school is often associated with this analysis.). Archiphonemes are often notated with a capital letter. Following this convention, the neutralization of /m, n, ŋ/ before /p, t, k/ could be notated as |N|, and limp, lint, link would be represented as |lɪNp, lɪNt, lɪNk|. (The |pipes| indicate underlying representation.) Other ways this archiphoneme could be notated are |m-n-ŋ|, {m, n, ŋ}, or |n*|.
 
Another example from American English is the neutralization of the plosives /t, d/ following a stressed syllable. Phonetically, both are realized in this position as [ɾ], a voiced alveolar flap. This can be heard by comparing writer with rider (for the sake of simplicity, Canadian raising is not taken into account).
 
[ɻaɪˀt] write
[ɻaɪd] ride
 
with the suffix -er:
 
['ɻaɪɾɚ] writer
['ɻaɪɾɚ] rider
 
Thus, one cannot say whether the underlying representation of the intervocalic consonant in either word is /t/ or /d/ without looking at the unsuffixed form. This neutralization can be represented as an archiphoneme |D|, in which case the underlying representation of writer or rider would be |'ɻaɪDɚ|.
 
 
 
In [[Afrikaans]] terminal devoicing results in homophones such as ''hard'' 'hard' and ''hart'' 'heart' as well as differences in consonant sounds between the singular and plural forms of nouns, for example ''golf'' 'wave' and ''golwe'' 'waves'.
 
Phonological final obstruent devoicing can lead to the [[phonemic differentiation|neutralization]] of phonemic contrasts in certain environments. For example, Russian ''нож'' 'a knife' (phonemically {{IPA|/noʐ/}}) and ''нош'' 'of burdens' (phonemically {{IPA|/noʂ/}}) are pronounced identically as {{IPA|[noʂ]}}.
 
==Gwelit ivez:==
#REDIRECT* [[Fonologiezh]]
 
[[Rummad:Fonetik ha fonologiezh|Friadur]]
 
{{Porched yezhoù}}
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