Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Taol-mouezh"

2 677 okted lamet ,  13 vloaz zo
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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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An taol-mouezh a c'hell bezañ pounner pa vez diforc'het kreñv ur silabenn diouzh ar re all pe c'hoazh gwan a-walc'h pa vez dister an diforc'h etre ar silabennoù taolmouehziet pe get.
 
Kemmañ a c'hell lec'h an taol-mouezh a [[rannyezh]] da rannyezh ivez, da skouer etre [[saozneg|saozneg unvan Breizh-Veur]] ha [[saozneg|saozneg unvan Stadoù-Unanet]] pe etre [[brezhoneg|brezhoneg Bro-Wened]] ha [[brezhoneg|brezhoneg Bro-Leon]].
 
==Mentadur ha lec'h an taol-mouezh==
It is common for stressed and unstressed syllables to behave differently as a language evolves. For example, in the [[Romance language]]s, the original Latin [[vowel length|short vowel]]s {{IPA|/e/}} and {{IPA|/o/}} have generally become [[diphthong]]s when stressed. Since stress takes part in [[verb]] conjugation, this has produced verbs with [[apophony|vowel alternation]] in the Romance languages. For example, the [[Spanish language|Spanish]] verb ''volver'' has the form ''v'''o'''lví'' in the past but ''v'''ue'''lvo'' in the present (see [[Spanish irregular verbs]]). [[Italian language|Italian]] shows the same phenomenon, but with {{IPA|/o/}} alternating with {{IPA|/uo/}} instead. This behaviour is not confined to verbs; for example, Spanish ''v'''ie'''nto'' "wind" vs. ''v'''e'''ntilación'' "ventilation", from Latin ''v'''e'''ntum''.
 
== DegreesDerezioù of stresstaol-mouezh ==
Primary and [[secondary stress]] are distinguished in some languages. English is commonly believed to have two levels of stress, as in the words ''cóunterfòil'' {{IPA|[ˈkaʊntɚˌfɔɪl]}} and ''còunterintélligence'' {{IPA|[ˌkaʊntɚ.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns]}}, and in some treatments has even been described as having ''four'' levels, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary, but these treatments often disagree with each other.
 
== NotationNotadur ==
Phoneticians such as [[Peter Ladefoged]] believe these multiple levels are mere [[phonetic]] detail and not true [[phoneme|phonemic]] stress. They report that often the alleged secondary stress is not characterized by the increase in respiratory activity normally associated with stress. In their analysis, an English syllable may be either stressed or unstressed, and if unstressed, the vowel may be either full or reduced. This is all that is required for a phonemic treatment. In addition, the last stressed syllable in a normal (default) [[Prosody (linguistics)|intonation unit]] receives additional intonational or "tonic" stress. (The intonational stress may occur elsewhere to mark contrast or other [[prosody (linguistics)|prosodic]] effects.) This combination of lexical stress, phrase- or clause-final prosody, and the reduction of some unstressed vowels conspires to create the impression of multiple levels of ''phonetic'' stress:
 
*Lexical stress
:1. Plus tonic stress: A syllable with both lexical and prosodic stress in Ladefoged's account corresponds to primary stress in the traditional account.
:2. Without tonic stress: A syllable with only lexical stress corresponds to secondary stress in the traditional account.
*No stress
:3. On a full vowel: An unstressed syllable with a full vowel also corresponds to secondary stress in the traditional account, and to tertiary stress in the fuller account.
:4. On a reduced vowel: An unstressed syllable with a reduced vowel is said be unstressed or to have quaternary stress.
 
Therefore, in a phonemic transcription of English words that indicates reduced vowels like [[schwa]], only a single symbol for stress is required. For example, ''cóunterfòil'' is only stressed on the first syllable, {{IPA|/ˈkaʊntɚ.fɔɪl/}}; the last syllable is an unstressed but unreduced vowel. (Unstressed ''oi'' does not normally reduce in English.) In ''còunterintélligence'' both marked syllables are stressed, {{IPA|/ˈkaʊntɚ.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/}}. The apparent differences in stress are due to prosody and appear when the words are said alone in citation, as, ironically, they are when being sounded out for transcription. They disappear when the words are moved to non-final position, for example in ''counterintelligence operations are going well,'' where only ''well'' has "primary" stress. (For some speakers, the first syllable of ''counterintelligence'' may be unstressed but unreduced, {{IPA|/kaʊntɚ.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/}}. Unstressed ''ou/ow'' does not normally reduce in English.)
 
== Notation ==
Different systems exist for indicating [[syllabification]] and stress.
 
* In [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]], primary stress is indicated by a high vertical line before the syllable, secondary stress by a low vertical line. Example: {{IPA|[sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən]}} or {{IPA|/sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən/}}.
* In English dictionaries which do not use IPA, stress is typically marked with a [[prime (symbol)|prime mark]] placed after the stressed syllable: /si-lab′-ə-fi-kay′-shən/.
* In ''[[ad hoc]]'' pronunciation guides, stress is often indicated using a combination of bold text and capital letters. Example: si-'''lab'''-if-i-'''KAY'''-shun or si-LAB-if-i-KAY-shun
* In [[Slavic-language]] dictionaries, stress is indicated with an [[acute accent]] on a syllable's vowel. Example: вимовля́ння.
* In [[Dutch language|Dutch]], ''ad hoc'' indication of stress is usually marked by an acute accent on the vowel (or, in the case of a [[diphthong]], the first two vowels) of the stressed syllable. Compare ''achterúítgang'' (deterioration) and ''áchteruitgang'' (back exit).
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