Pietro Aretino : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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'''Pietro Aretino''' ([[ 20 a viz Ebrel]] [[1492]] – [[21 a viz Here]], [[1556]]) a oa ur barzh italian, skriver pezhioù-c'hoari ha flemmskridoù, hag en doe levezon bras meurbet war an arz hag ar politikerezh hag a ijinas ar bornografiezh lennegel. <ref>Da skouer e ''La Cazzaria'' (" Levr ar C'halc'h"), '' Skol ar Gasterezh'', ''Ar Ragionamenti: buhezioù al leanezed, buhezioù ar gwragez, buhezioù ar c'hourtizanezed '' hag an ''Dialoghi''.</ref>
== E vuhez ==
Born out of wedlock in [[Arezzo]] (''Aretino'', "from Arezzo"), very casually educated then banished from his native city, Aretino spent a formative decade in Perugia, before being sent, highly recommended, to Rome. There [[Agostino Chigi]], the rich banker and patron of [[Raffaello]], took him under his wing.
When [[Hanno the elephant]], pet of [[Pope Leo X]], died in [[1514]], Aretino penned a satirical pamphlet entitled "The Last Will and Testament of the Elephant Hanno." The fictitious will cleverly mocked the leading political and religious figures of [[Rome]] at the time, including [[Pope Leo X]] himself. The pamphlet was such a success that it kickstarted Aretino's career and established him as a famous satirist, ultimately known as "the Scourge of Princes."
Aretino prospered, living from hand to mouth as a hanger-on in the literate circle of his patron, sharpening his satirical talents on the gossip of politics and the papal [[Roman Curia|Papal Curia]], and turning the coarse Roman [[pasquinade]] into a rapier weapon of satire, until his sixteen ribald ''Sonetti Lussuriosi'' written to accompany [[Giulio Romano]]'s exquisitely beautiful but utterly pornographic series drawings engraved by [[Marcantonio Raimondi]] under the title ''[[I Modi]]'' finally caused such outrage that he had to temporarily flee Rome.
After Leo's death in [[1521]], his patron was [[Cardinal Giulio de' Medici]], whose competitors for the papal throne felt the sting of Aretino's scurrilous lash. The installation of the prudish Fleming [[Adrian VI]] ("la tedesca tigna" in Pietro's words) instead encouraged Aretino to seek new patrons away from Rome, mainly with [[Federico II Gonzaga]] in [[Mantua]], and with the [[condottieri|condottiero]] [[Giovanni dalle Bande Nere|Giovanni de' Medici]] ("Giovanni delle Bande Nere"). The election of his old Medici patron as [[Pope Clement VII]] sent him briefly back to [[Rome]], but death threats and an attempted assassination from one of the victims of his pen, Bishop Giovanni Giberti, in July [[1525]], set him wandering through northern Italy in the service of various noblemen, distinguished by his wit, audacity and brilliant and facile talents, until he settled permanently in [[1527]], in [[Venice]], ''the'' anti-Papal city of Italy, "seat of all vices" Aretino noted with gusto.
[[Image:PietroAretinoTitian.JPG|thumb|left|Pietro Aretino, by [[Titian]], 1545 ([[Palazzo Pitti]])]]
:"In a letter to Giovanni de Medici written in [[1524]] Aretino encloses a satirical poem saying that due to a sudden aberration he has fallen in love with a female cook and temporarily switched from boys to girls..." (''My Dear Boy'')
From the security of Venice Aretino "kept all that was famous in Italy in a kind of state of siege," in [[Jakob Burckhardt]]'s estimation. [[Francis I of France]] and [[Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor|Charles V]] pensioned him at the same time, each hoping for some damage to the other. "The rest of his relations with the great is mere beggary and vulgar extortion," was Burckhardt's assessment of a man the 19th century found utterly unprincipled, an abject flatterer, the object of judgmental disgust and yet the father of modern [[journalism]]:
:''"His literary talent, his clear and sparkling style, his varied observation of men and things, would have made him a considerable writer under any circumstances, destitute as he was of the power of conceiving a genuine work of art, such as a true dramatic comedy; and to the coarsest as well as the most refined malice he added a grotesque wit so brilliant that in some cases it does not fall short of that of Rabelais."''
::&mdash;Jacob Burckhardt, ''The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy'', 1855.
Apart from both [[sacred and profane]] texts&mdash; a satire of high-flown [[Renaissance]] [[neo-Platonic]] [[dialog]]ues is set in a [[brothel]]&mdash; and [[comedies]] such as ''La cortigiana'' and ''La talenta'', Aretino is remembered above all for his letters, full of literary flattery that could turn to [[blackmail]]. They circulated widely in manuscript and he collected them and published them at intervals winning as many enemies as it did fame, and earned him the dangerous nickname [[Ariosto]] gave him: ''flagello dei principi'' ("scourge of princes"). The first [[English language|English]] translations of some of Aretino's racier material have been coming onto the market recently.
''La cortigiana'' is a brilliant parody of [[Baldassare Castiglione|Castiglione’s]] ''[[The Book of the Courtier|Il Cortegiano]]'', and features the adventures of a Sienese gentleman, Messer Maco, who travels to Rome to become a [[cardinal (Catholicism)|cardinal]]. He would also like to win himself a mistress, but when he falls in love with a girl he sees in a window, he realizes that only as a courtier would he be able to win her. In mockery of Castiglione's advice on how to become the perfect courtier, a charlatan proceeds to teach Messer Maco how to behave as a courtier: he must learn how to deceive and flatter, and sit hours in front of the mirror.
Aretino was a close friend of [[Titian]], who painted his [[portrait]] (''illustrations'') at least three times. The early portrait is a psychological study of alarming modernity. Clement VII made Aretino a [[Knight of Rhodes]], and [[Julius III]] named him a Knight of St. Peter, but the chain he wears for his [[1545]] portrait may have merely been jewelry. In his strictly-for-publication letters to patrons Aretino would often add a verbal portrait to Titian's painted one.
"He is said to have died of suffocation from [[Fatal hilarity|laughing too much]]."<ref>Waterfield, Gordon, ed. ''First Footsteps in East Africa'', (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1966) pg. 59 footnote.</ref>
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<references />
* Cleugh, James, 1965. ''The Divine Aretino (Pietro of Arezzo, 1492-1556, A Biography''
*Hutton, Edward, 1922. ''Pietro Aretino: The scourge of princes''.
*Robert Greene, ''The 48 Laws of Power'', Viking Penguin, 1998, ISBN 0-14-028019-7
*[[Rictor Norton|Norton, Rictor]] (ed.) ''My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries''. Leyland Publications, San Francisco. 1998
* [http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9355750/Pietro-Aretino ''Encyclopedia Britannica'']
== Liammoù diavaez ==
{{commons|Pietro Aretino|Pietro Aretino}}
*[http://www.wga.hu/database/glossary/illustri/aretino.html Buhez Pietro Aretino, berr ha berr]
*[http://collections.frick.org/CUS.18.zoomobject._998$21715*2733759 Ur poltred all gant Tizian en Dastumad Frick ]
*[http://www.exploitz.com/book/History/Italian_Renaissance/53-Pietro-Aretino.php Jakob Burckhardt's severe assessment of Pietro Aretino] in ''Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy,'' 18
* [http://venusem.net/Museum/L%60Aretin_d%60Augustin_Carrache_ou_Receuil_de_Postures_Erotiques,_d%60apres_les_Gravures_a_l%60eau-forte_par_cet_Artiste_celebre/36468D4/ '''Sixteen Postures''' illustrations by Agostino Carracci, late 16th century ]
{{DEFAULTSORT:Aretino, Pietro}}
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