D (Robot ouzhpennet: arz, az, bar, be, crh, fy, gl, hr, hsb, ka, kab, ku, mhr, oc, sl, szl, zh-min-nan kemmet: ar, fa, tl)
''Ashkenaz'' eo ar ger hebreek a veze graet eus Bro-Alamagn er Grennamzer, diwar ur meneg eus Levr ar C'heneliezh 10.3.)
The Medieval Jewish cultural areas did not coincide with the Christian principalities; thus Ashkenaz included Northern France, and bounded on the Sephardic area: the [[Sephardi]], or [[Spain|Spanish]] Jews, who also inhabited southern France. Later, the Ashkenazi territory would spread into [[Eastern Europe]] as well.
While Hebrew always remained the official language of [[Jewish prayer]], the [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]] mixed considerable Yiddish into their Hebrew, and were also responsible for a significant secondary religious literature written in Yiddish. For example, the tales about the [[Baal Shem Tov]] were written largely in Yiddish. In addition, even beyond the Hasidim, Ashkenazic Jewish women traditionally were not literate in Hebrew; women were the main audience of works like the ''Bovo-Bukh'', but there was also a large body of Yiddish religious works written for (and often by) women, such as the ''[[Tseno-Ureno]]'', the memoirs of [[Glückel of Hameln]], and the ''[[tkhine]]s''. [Liptzin, 1972, 4-17]
===An ''Haskalah'' (Sklêrijennadur) vodern===