Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Yideg"

50 okted ouzhpennet ,  11 vloaz zo
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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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===An ''Haskalah'' (Sklêrijennadur) vodern===
 
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Use of the Western Yiddish dialect began to decline in the [[18th century]], as [[The Enlightenment]] and the ''[[Haskalah]]'' (Jewish Enlightenment) led German Jews to view Yiddish as a "corrupt German". Between assimilation to German and the beginnings of the revival of Hebrew, Western Yiddish was largely squeezed out, surviving mainly as a language of "intimate family circles or of closely knit trade groups such as the cattle-dealers of the [[Eifel]] Mountains. [Liptzin, 1972, 2]
 
 
The three great founders of modern secular Yiddish literature were [[Mendele Mocher Sforim]], [[Sholom Aleichem]], and [[I.L. Peretz]]. Solomon Rabinowitz, better known as [[Sholom Aleichem]] ([[1859]]&ndash;[[1916]]), is known as one of the greatest Yiddish authors and humorists, the Yiddish equivalent of [[Mark Twain]]. A collection of his stories about Tevye the Milkman was later the basis of the Broadway musical and film ''[[Fiddler on the Roof]]''.
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===An {{XXvet kantved}}===
 
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At the start of the [[20th century]], Yiddish was emerging as a major Eastern European language. A rich literature was being published, [[Yiddish theater]] and [[Yiddish film]] were booming, and it had even achieved status as one of the official languages of the [[Belarusian SSR]]. Educational autonomy for Jews in several countries (notably Poland) after [[World War I]] led to an increase in formal Yiddish-language education, standardized pronunciation and spelling, and to the [[1925]] founding of the Yiddish Scientific Institute, later [[YIVO|YIVO Institute for Jewish Research]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 3]
Yiddish emerged as the national language of a large Jewish community in Eastern Europe that rejected [[Zionism]] and sought to obtain Jewish cultural autonomy in Europe. It also contended with [[Modern Hebrew]] as a literary language among Zionists.
 
[[Ethnologue]] estimates that in [[1991]] there were 3 million speakers of Eastern Yiddish, but Western Yiddish, which had only "several tens of thousands" of speakers on the eve of [[the Holocaust]], is now "nearly extinct".
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====Ar yideg en URSS====
 
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In the [[Soviet Union]], much effort was invested in promoting the use of Yiddish during [[1920s]]. Yiddish was then regarded as the language of "Jewish [[proletariat]]"; at the same time, Hebrew was considered a "[[bourgeois]]" language and its use was generally discouraged. Starting in the [[1930s]], growing [[anti-Semitism|anti-Semitic]] tendencies in Soviet politics drove Yiddish from most spheres; few Yiddish publications survived (among them are the literary magazine ''[[Sovetish Heymland]]'' (1961-1991) and the newspaper ''[[Birobidzhaner Shtern]]'').
In today`s Ukraine [[Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman]] still writes in Yiddish.
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====Stadoù Unanet====
 
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In the United States, the Yiddish language bound together Jews from many countries, whose national origin was often as important as their Jewish identity. Within some families, marrying across national origin lines was seen as equivalent to marrying out of the faith. ''[[The Forward]]'', one of seven Yiddish [[New York City|New York]] daily newspapers, and other Yiddish newspapers served as a forum for Jews of all European backgrounds. [Melamed, 1925] American Yiddish music, derived from [[Klezmer]], was another binding mechanism. [[Michel Gelbart]], a very prolific composer, probably best known for "I Have A Little Dreydl," wrote music that was very Jewish ''and'' very American. Thriving Yiddish theatre in New York City and (to a lesser extent) elsewhere kept the language vital. Many "Yiddishisms," like "Italianisms" and "Spanishisms," continued to enter spoken New York English, often used by Jews and non-Jews alike without consciousness of the language of origin of the phrases. In the [[United States]], most Yiddish speakers tended not to pass on the language to their children who assimilated and spoke English.
 
 
In [[1978]], the European-born secular Yiddish writer [[Isaac Bashevis Singer]], a resident of the United States, received the [[Nobel Prize in literature]].
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====Israel====
 
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In [[Israel]] Yiddish was displaced by [[Modern Hebrew]]. In part this reflected the conflict between religious and secular forces. Many in the larger, secular group wanted a new national language to foster a cohesive identity, while traditionally religious Jews desired that Hebrew be respected as a holy language reserved for prayer and religious study. However, this conflict also reflected the opposing views among secular Jews worldwide, one side seeing Hebrew (and [[Zionism]]) and the other Yiddish (and [[internationalism (politics)|Internationalism]]) as the means of defining emerging Jewish nationalism.
 
The major exception to the decline of spoken Yiddish can be found in the [[Haredi Judaism|Haredi]] Jewish communities all over the world. Among most Haredim all over the world, [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] is generally reserved for prayer and religious studies, while Yiddish is reserved as a home and business language.
In today`s Ukraine [[Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman]] still writes in Yiddish.
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==Reizhskrivadur==
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