Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Herri Iañ (Bro-Saoz)"

Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
{{Stumm an titl|Herri I{{añ}} (Bro-Saoz)}}
{{Istor diechu}}
'''Herri IañI{{añ}}''' , lesanvet ''Beauclerc'' (war-dro 1068/1069 – [[1 a viz Kerzu]] 1135), a oa pevare mab [[Gwilherm an Alouber|Gwilherm Iañ, roue Bro-Saoz]]. Roue Bro-Saoz e voe war-lerc'h e vreur henañ [[Gwilherm II (Bro-Saoz)|Gwilherm II]] e 1100. Trec'hiñ a reas e vreur [[Robert Curthose]] evit bezañ dug Normandi e 1106. Lesanvet e oa '''Beauclerc''' dre ma oa troet gant ar studi, ha '''Leon a Justis''' dre ma klaskas lakaat urzh el lezennoù.
Gouzout a reas ober e vad eus kement degouezh a oa. Kemer a reas ar galloud pa oa e vreur Roperzh e Brezel ar Groaz (Kentañ kroazadeg) ha brezel a voe etre an daou vreur evit gouzout piv a vije mestr Saoz ha Normandi. Adunanet e voe ar rouantelezh hag an dugelezh goude ma oant bet dispartiet gant e dad p'edo war e dremenvan e 1087.
Sevel a reas ur seurt lezenn anvet [[Charter of Liberties]], a ranke ar roue ober diouti. Kempenn a reas justis hag arc'hanterezh ar rouantelezh. Kas a reas tud da evezhiañ galloud ar gargidi ha meulet e voe kement-se gant ar bobl. Krog e oa ar pobloù saoz ha norman da gendeuziñ ha dimeziñ a reas d'ur verc'h eus an tiegezh saoz kozh.
== E yaouankiz ==
Ganet e oa etre Mae 1068 ha Mae 1069, e [[Selby]] a greder, e [[Yorkshire]], e biz [[Bro-Saoz]]. E vamm e oa ar rouanez [[Matilda Flandrez]] , a ziskenne eus [[Alfred Veur]].
The Chronicler [[Orderic Vitalis]] reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "''You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power''."
Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.
==Seizing the throne of England==
{{House of Normandy|henry1}}
When, on [[2 August]] [[1100]], William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the [[First Crusade]]. His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at [[Winchester, Hampshire]], where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel.{{Fact|date=March 2009}} Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading [[Barons]] and was crowned three days later on [[5 August]] at [[Westminster Abbey]]. He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a [[Charter of Liberties]] which is considered a forerunner of the [[Magna Carta]].
==First marriage==
{{Main|Battle of Tinchebray}}
On the morning of the [[28 September]] [[1106]], exactly 40 years after William had landed in England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.
==King of England and Ruler of Normandy==
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the [[Tower of London]], subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the [[Duchy of Normandy]] as a possession of the Kingdom of [[England]] and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.
In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, [[William Adelin]], to the daughter of [[Fulk of Jerusalem]] (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son [[Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou|Geoffrey Plantagenet]], which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the [[Plantagenet]] Kings.
==Activities as a King==
*restoring the laws of [[Edward the Confessor]].
Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with [[Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm]], the [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], and [[Pope Paschal II]] in the [[Anselm of Canterbury#Conflicts with King Henry I|investiture controversy]], which was settled in the [[Concordat of London]] in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "[[temporalities]]" (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called ''commendatio'', the [[commendation ceremony]], like any secular vassal.
Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a traitorous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of [[Ivry-la-Bataille|Ivry]], exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.
== E vugale hervez al lezenn ==
Daou vugel en doe digant Matilda (Edith), e wreg kentañ a varvas d'ar [[1añ a viz Mae]] [[1118]] e [[palez Westminster]], hag a zo beziet en [[Abati Westminster]].
# [[Matilda an Impalaerez]] (war-dro an [[11 a viz C'hwevrer]] 1102 – [[10 a viz Gwengolo]] [[1167]]). Dimeziñ a eure da gentañ da [[Herri V, Impalaer Santel]], ha goude da [[Jafrez V, kont Anjev]], a voe tad he bugale.
# [[Gwilherm Adelin]], ([[5 a viz Eost]] [[1103]] – [[25 a viz Du]] [[1120]]). Dimeziñ a reas da [[Matilda Anjev]] (marvet e 1154), merc'h da [[Foulk V]], kont Anjev.
== Eil Dimeziñ ==
D'an [[29 a viz Genver]] [[1121]] e timezas da [[Adeliza Louvain]], merc'h da [[Godfrey Iañ Leuven]], [[Dug]] Lotharingia Izel, ha [[kont Brabant]] met ne voe bugel ebet. Abalamour ma n'en doa mab ebet e reas Herri d'e varoned touiñ fealded d'e verc'h, Matilda an Impalaerez, intañvez [[Herri V, impalaer santel]]
== Marv hag hêrezh ==
[[Skeudenn:Reading Abbey exterior.jpg|thumb|right|Abati Reading]]
E 1135 ez eas Herri da Normandi da weladenniñ e vibien-vihan, bugale Matilda ha Jafrez.
# Maud FitzRoy, dimezet da [[Konan III]], dug Breizh
# Constance FitzRoy, dimezet da [[Richard de Beaumont]]
# Mabel FitzRoy, dimezet da William III Gouet
# Aline FitzRoy, dimezet da Matthieu I of Montmorency
# Gilbert FitzRoy, marvet goude 1142. E vamm a vefe ur c'hoar da Walter de Gand.
# Emma, ganet war-dro 1138; pried Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [diasur pa oa bet ganet daou vloaz goude marv Herri.]<ref>New England Genalogical and Historical Register; April 1965, pg. 96</ref>
# Isabel Hedwig of England
# [[Matilda FitzRoy]], abadez Montvilliers pe Montpiller
== Daveennoù ==
{{s-aft|after=[[Steven (Bro-Saoz)|Steven Bleaz]] ''([[de facto]])''<br />[[Matilda Bro-Saoz]] ''([[de jure]])''}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Roparzh II, (dug Normandi)|Roparzh II]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Duged Normandi]]|years=1106 – 1135}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Steven (Bro-Saoz)|Steven Bleaz]]}}
|MMH=[[House of Capet|Capet Major]]}}
{{s-ref|Tompsett, Brian, [http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/genealogy/royal/catalog.html Directory of Royal Genealogical Data] (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).|Ross, Kelley L., [http://www.friesian.com/ The Proceedings of the Friesian School] (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).}}
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