Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Yideg"

46 okted ouzhpennet ,  10 vloaz zo
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Robot ouzhpennet: bjn:Bahasa Yiddish; Kemm dister
D (Robot ouzhpennet: bjn:Bahasa Yiddish; Kemm dister)
 
== Istor ar yezh ==
=== Eus ar yuzev-alamaneg d'an henyideg ===
 
Adalek amzer an impalaeriezh roman da vihanañ e vez komzet yideg en Alamagn.
Apart from the obvious use of Hebrew words for specifically Jewish artifacts, it is very difficult to decide how far this 15th century Judeo-German differs from the standard Late Middle High German of the period. A lot depends on how the phonetic values of the Hebrew characters are interpreted, especially with regard to the vowels. There seems, however, to be a consensus that by this period, Judeo-German would have sounded distinctive to the average German, even when no Hebrew lexemes were used. In university faculties, the literature of this period is studied both in departments of Yiddish studies and in departments of Medieval German.
 
The [[16th century]] witnessed an upswing in writings in what may now be referred to as Old Yiddish. The development of the [[printing press]] contributed significantly to the improved rate of survival of these writings. The most popular work of the 16th century was the 650-stanza ''[[Bovo-Bukh]]'', composed by [[Elia Levita]] (1469-1549) in 1507–15081507–1508, which has gone through at least forty print editions, beginning in [[1541]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 4-5] Levita, the earliest named Yiddish author, also wrote ''Paris un Vienne''. Another Judeo-German retelling of a courtly novel which presumably also dates from the 15th century, though the manuscripts are from the 16th, is ''[[Widuwilt]]'', also known as Kinig Artus Hof, an adaptation of the Middle High German romance Wigalois by [[Wirnt von Gravenberg]]. Another significant Old Yiddish writer is [[Avroham ben Schemuel Pikartei]] whose paraphrase on the [[Book of Job]] dates from [[1557]].
 
While Hebrew always remained the official language of [[Jewish prayer]], the [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]] mixed considerable Yiddish into their Hebrew, and were also responsible for a significant secondary religious literature written in Yiddish. For example, the tales about the [[Baal Shem Tov]] were written largely in Yiddish. In addition, even beyond the Hasidim, Ashkenazic Jewish women traditionally were not literate in Hebrew; women were the main audience of works like the ''Bovo-Bukh'', but there was also a large body of Yiddish religious works written for (and often by) women, such as the ''[[Tseno-Ureno]]'', the memoirs of [[Glückel of Hameln]], and the ''[[tkhine]]s''. [Liptzin, 1972, 4-17]
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=== An ''Haskalah'' (Sklêrijennadur) vodern ===
 
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Farther east, where Jews were not surrounded by German speakers, the Eastern Yiddish dialect continued to thrive. The late [[19th century]] and early [[20th century]] are widely considered the Golden Age of [[secular]] Yiddish literature; this period also coincides with the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language, and the revival of Hebrew literature. Some Modern Hebrew words began to find their way into Yiddish, as well.
 
The three great founders of modern secular Yiddish literature were [[Mendele Mocher Sforim]], [[Sholom Aleichem]], and [[I.L. Peretz]]. Solomon Rabinowitz, better known as [[Sholom Aleichem]] ([[1859]]&ndash;[[1916]]), is known as one of the greatest Yiddish authors and humorists, the Yiddish equivalent of [[Mark Twain]]. A collection of his stories about Tevye the Milkman was later the basis of the Broadway musical and film ''[[Fiddler on the Roof]]''.
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=== An {{XXvet kantved}} ===
 
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==== Ar yideg en URSS ====
 
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==== Stadoù Unanet ====
 
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In the United States, the Yiddish language bound together Jews from many countries, whose national origin was often as important as their Jewish identity. Within some families, marrying across national origin lines was seen as equivalent to marrying out of the faith. ''[[The Forward]]'', one of seven Yiddish [[New York City|New York]] daily newspapers, and other Yiddish newspapers served as a forum for Jews of all European backgrounds. [Melamed, 1925] American Yiddish music, derived from [[Klezmer]], was another binding mechanism. [[Michel Gelbart]], a very prolific composer, probably best known for "I Have A Little Dreydl," wrote music that was very Jewish ''and'' very American. Thriving Yiddish theatre in New York City and (to a lesser extent) elsewhere kept the language vital. Many "Yiddishisms," like "Italianisms" and "Spanishisms," continued to enter spoken New York English, often used by Jews and non-Jews alike without consciousness of the language of origin of the phrases. In the [[United States]], most Yiddish speakers tended not to pass on the language to their children who assimilated and spoke English.
 
Largely because of the influence of Jewish entertainment figures in the United States, many Yiddish words have entered the [[American English]] lexicon. In [[1968]], the modern American writer [[Leo Rosten]] ([[1908]]&ndash;[[1997]]) published ''[[The Joys of Yiddish]]'' (ISBN 07434065160-7434-0651-6), an introduction to words of Yiddish origin used in the English of the United States. See also "[[Yinglish]]."
 
In [[1978]], the European-born secular Yiddish writer [[Isaac Bashevis Singer]], a resident of the United States, received the [[Nobel Prize in literature]].
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==== Israel ====
 
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== Reizhskrivadur ==
Gant lizherennoù [[hebraeg|hebraek]] e vez skrivet ar yideg. Implijet e vez kensonennoù hebraek zo evel vogalennoù:
 
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== Gwelet ivez ==
* [[Yezhoù yuzevek]]
 
== Liammoù diavaez ==
{{InterWiki|yi}}
* [http://www.jewish-languages.org/yiddish.html Jewish Language Research Website: Yiddish]
* [http://www.yiddishdictionaryonline.com/ On-line Yiddish dictionary]
* [http://yiddishbookcenter.org/ National Yiddish Book Center]
* [http://yiddishsummer.org/ NYBC's Summer Language Internship]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/yiddish/ Shtetl]
* [http://www.yv.org/ The Yiddish Voice]
* [http://www.jewishbookcenter.com/ The Jewish Book Center of The Workmen's Circle]
* [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cria/Current-projects/Yiddish/yiddish.html/The Spoken Yiddish Language Project (Columbia University)]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=YDD Eastern Yiddish in Ethnologue]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=YIH Western Yiddish in Ethnologue]
* [http://yiddish.forward.com/ Forverts -- The Yiddish Forward]
* [http://www.circle.org/ The Workmen's Circle/Arbeter Ring]
* [http://stub.semantics.de/jd/templates/template.xml?Sprache=eng&js=yes&Skript=Home Collection of Yiddish prints from the 16th to the 20th century]
* [http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/augustana.html#ii Bibliotheca Iiddica] Small encyclopedia on Yiddish. Home page is in Latin, most of the rest is in transliterated Yiddish.
* [http://yiddish.haifa.ac.il/Stories.html Di Velt fun Yidish: Audio Stories]
* [http://www.cs.engr.uky.edu/~raphael/yiddish/makeyiddish.html Yiddish Typewriter] - A free online service to convert Yiddish texts from YIVO transliteration into the Hebrew script
 
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