Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Pedro Calderón de la Barca"

Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
==E vuhez==
Ganet e voe Calderón e [[Madrid]]. E vamm, hag a oa a orin flandrezat, a varvas e 1610; e dad, un [[Hidalgo (noblañs)]] a orin eus Kantabria hag a oa bet sekretour an teñzor, a varvas e 1615. Kelennet e voe Calderón e Kevredigezh ar Jezuited e [[Madrid]], e-sell mont da veleg; met studiañ a reas ar gwir e skol-veur [[Salamanca]].
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Hervez unan eus e vuhezskridourien, [[Vera Tassis]], e servijas Calderón e arme Spagn en [[Italia]] ha [[Flandrez]] etre 1625 ha 1635; met prouiñ a ra meur a zave, er c´hontrol, e oa bet Calderón o chom e Madrid e-pad ar bloavezhioù-se.
According to one of his biographers, [[Vera Tassis]], Calderón served with the Spanish army in [[Italy]] and [[Flanders]] between 1625 and 1635; but this statement is contradicted by numerous legal documents indicating that Calderón resided at Madrid during these years. Early in 1629 one of his brothers was stabbed by an actor who took sanctuary in a convent; Calderón, accompanied by another brother and some constables, broke into the cloister and attempted to seize the criminal. (One of the nuns happened to be the daughter of fellow dramatist [[Lope de Vega]].) The fashionable preacher, [[Hortensio Félix Paravicino]], denounced Calderón's actions in a sermon preached before [[Philip IV of Spain|King Philip IV]]; Calderón retorted by introducing into ''El príncipe constante'', a mocking reference to Paravicino's florid oratory. Calderón was punished with three days of house arrest, and forced to remove the offending line from the play.
By the time [[Félix Lope de Vega|Lope de Vega]] died in 1635, Calderón was recognized as the foremost Spanish dramatist of the age. Calderón had also gained considerable favour in the court, and in 1636-1637 he was made a knight of the [[order of Santiago]] by Philip IV, who had already commissioned from him a series of spectacular plays for the royal theatre in the newly built [[Buen Retiro]] palace.
On 28 May 1640 he joined a company of mounted [[cuirassiers]] recently raised by [[Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares]], took part in the [[Catalonia]]n campaign, and distinguished himself by his gallantry at [[Tarragona]]. His health failing, he retired from the army in November 1642, and three years later was awarded a special military pension in recognition of his services in the field.
His biography during the next few years is obscure. His brother, Diego Calderón, died in 1647. A son, Pedro José, was born to Calderón and an unknown woman between 1647 and 1649; the mother died soon after. Calderón committed his son to the care of his nephew, José, son of his brother Diego. Perhaps for reasons relating to these personal trials, Calderón became a tertiary of the [[order of St Francis]] in 1650, and then finally joined the priesthood. He was ordained in 1651, and became a priest at [[San Salvador]] at Madrid. According to a statement he made a year or two later, he decided to give up writing secular dramas for the commercial theatres.
Though he did not adhere strictly to this resolution, he now wrote mostly mythological plays for the palace theatres, and ''[[autos sacramentales]]''--one-act allegories illustrating the mystery of the [[Eucharist]]--for performance during the feast of [[Corpus Christi (feast)|Corpus Christi]]. In 1662, two of Calderón's ''autos'', ''Las órdenes militares'' and ''Mística y real Babilonia'', were the subjects of an inquiry by the [[Inquisition]]; the former was censured, its manuscript copies confiscated, and remained condemned until 1671.
Calderón was appointed honorary chaplain to Philip IV in 1663, and continued as chaplain to his successor. In his eighty-first year he wrote his last secular play, ''Hado y Divisa de Leonido y Marfisa'', in honor of [[Charles II of Spain|Charles II]]'s marriage to [[Marie Louise d'Orléans (1662–1689)|Maria Luisa of Orléans]]. Notwithstanding his position at court and his popularity throughout Spain, his closing years seem to have been passed in relative poverty.
Calderón initiated what has been called the second cycle of [[Spanish Golden Age]] theatre. Whereas his predecessor, [[Félix Lope de Vega|Lope de Vega]], pioneered the dramatic forms and genres of Spanish Golden Age theatre, Calderón polished and perfected them. Whereas Lope's strength lay in the sponteneity and naturalness of his work, Calderón's strength lay in his capacity for poetic beauty, dramatic structure and philosophical depth. Calderón was a perfectionist who often revisited and reworked his plays, even long after they debuted. This perfectionism was not just limited to his own work: many of his plays rework existing plays or scenes by other dramatists, improving their depth, complexity, and unity. (Many European playwrights of the time, such as [[Molière]], [[Pierre Corneille|Corneille]] and [[William Shakespeare|Shakespeare]], reworked old plays in this way.) Calderón excelled above all others in the genre of the "auto sacramental", in which he showed a seemingly inexhaustible capacity to giving new dramatic forms to a given set of theological constructs. Calderón wrote 120 "comedias", 80 "autos sacramentales" and 20 short comedic works called "entremeses". Although his fame dwindled during the 18th century, he was rediscovered in the early 19th century by the German Romantics. Translations of [[August Wilhelm Schlegel]] reinvigorated interest in the playwright, who, alongside [[Shakespeare]], subsequently became a banner figure for the German Romantic movement.<ref>Schlegel. August Wilhelm. Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur. 2 Vols. Ed. Erich Lohner. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1967. Vol. 2, pp. 107ff.</ref> In subsequent decades, Calderón's was translated into German numerous times, most notably by [[Johann Dietrich Gries]] and [[Joseph von Eichendorff]], and found significant reception on the German and Austrian stages under the direction of [[Goethe]], [[E.T.A. Hoffmann]] and [[Joseph Schreyvogel]]. Later significant adaptations in the German context include [[Hugo von Hofmannsthal]]'s versions of [[La vida es sueño]] and [[El Gran Teatro del mundo]].
Twentieth-century Calderón reception suffered significantly under the influence of [[Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo]], but a revival of interest in Calderón scholarship can be largely attributed to a British reception, namely through the works of A.A. Parker, A.E. Sloman and more recently [[Bruce Wardropper]].
==Un nebeud oberennoù==