Malcolm X (19251965) a oa ul lider politikel afroamerikan ha degemennour Nation of Islam. Anvet e oa ivez El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

Malcolm X
den
Reizh pe jenerpaotr Kemmañ
Bro ar geodedouriezhStadoù-Unanet Kemmañ
Anv e yezh-vamm an denMalcolm X Kemmañ
Anv ganedigezhMalcolm Little Kemmañ
Anv-bihanMalcolm Kemmañ
Anv-familhLittle, X, Shabazz Kemmañ
LesanvMalachi Shabazz Kemmañ
Deiziad ganedigezh19 Mae 1925 Kemmañ
Lec'h ganedigezhOmaha Kemmañ
Deiziad ar marv21 C'hwe 1965 Kemmañ
Lec'h ar marvManhattan Kemmañ
Doare mervelmuntr Kemmañ
Abeg ar marvgloaz dre arm-tan Kemmañ
Lec'h douaridigezhFerncliff Cemetery Kemmañ
TadEarl Little Kemmañ
MammLouise Little (activist) Kemmañ
Breur pe c'hoarReginald Little, Ella Little-Collins Kemmañ
PriedBetty Shabazz Kemmañ
Den heverkGrace Lee Boggs, Elijah Muhammad Kemmañ
Yezh vammsaozneg Kemmañ
Yezhoù komzet pe skrivetsaozneg Kemmañ
Yezh implijet dre skridsaozneg Kemmañ
Micherpolitiker, autobiographer, stourmer politikel, human rights activist, Muslim minister Kemmañ
Deroù ar prantad labour1954 Kemmañ
Dibenn ar prantad labour1965 Kemmañ
Strollad etnekAfroamerikaned Kemmañ
RelijionIslam, Nation of Islam, Islam sunnit Kemmañ
Perzhiad ecivil rights movement Kemmañ
Ideologiezh politikelBlack Nationalism, Pan-Africanism Kemmañ
Prizioù resevetAnisfield-Wolf Book Awards Kemmañ
Malcolm X yaouank (1964)

Ganet e oa dindan an anv Malcolm Little d'an 19 a viz Mae 1925 en Omaha e Nebraska. E touez breudeur e dad, Earl Little, e oa bet lazhet gant tud wenn hag unan eus e eontred a oa bet linchet. Sklaerik e oa kroc'hen ar Malcolm yaouank. Tennañ a rae an arouezenn-mañ d'e vamm Louise Helen, sklaer he liv peogwir e oa gwenn he zad.

Ur wech deuet en oad e teuas da vezañ felladenner, ha bac'het e voe en toull. D'ar mare-se en doe kaz ouzh ar bibl, Doue hag ar relijion dre-vras. Padal e glevas komz eus an Islam ha goude an toull-bac'h e voe gounezet d'ar feiz vuzulman. Emezelañ a reas ouzh Nation of Islam ha cheñch a reas e anv en "X", o nac'hañ e anv sklav. Graet e veze "diaouled" eus ar re wenn gantañ hag ar re zu a oa sañset o vont da ren ar bed en-dro hervezañ.

Dimeziñ a reas e 1958 gant Betty X (ganet Sanders). C'hwec'h merc'h o doe.

E miz Gwengolo 1960 e kejas gant Fidel Castro hag a oa e New-York o weladenniñ ar Broadoù Unanet.

Goude bezañ kuitaet Nation of Islam e 1964 e reas e Hajj, da lâret eo ar perc'herinded d'ar vMekka. Dont a reas da vezañ ur muzulman sunni. Gwellout a reas muzulmaned eus meur a ouenn ha dont a reas da soñjal e c'hallfe an Islam mont dreist ar c'hudennoù gouennel. Beajiñ a reas div wech en Afrika, e 1959 hag e 1964. Diwezhatoc'h, e 1964, ez eas da Vro-C'hall hag d'ar Rouantelezh-Unanet.

Drouklazhet e voe d'an 21 a viz C'hwevrer 1965 e Manhattan e New-York gant izili eus Nation of Islam moarvat.

Liammoù diabarzh

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Liammoù diavaez

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Pennadoù ha rentaoù-kont

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Levrlennadur

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gant Malcolm X

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  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: Grove Press, 1965.
  • By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1970.
  • The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Seaver Books, 1971.
  • Malcolm X: February 1965, The Final Speeches. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1992.
  • Malcolm X: The Last Speeches. Bruce Perry, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1989.
  • Malcolm X Speaks Out (A Callaway BoundSound Book with Compact Disc). Nan Richardson, Catherine Chermayeff, and Antoinette White, eds. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1992.
  • Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Merit Publishers, 1965.
  • Notes from the Frontlines: Excerpts from the Great Speeches of Malcolm X (Compact Disc). BMG Music, 1992.
  • The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Morrow, 1968.
  • The Wisdom of Malcolm X (Compact Discs). Black Label, 1991.

Pennadoù-skrid

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  • Parks, Gordon. The White Devil's Day is Almost Over. Life, May 31, 1963.
  • Speakman, Lynn. Who Killed Malcolm X? The Valley Advocate, November 26, 1992, pp. 3-6.
  • Vincent, Theodore. The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X. The Black Scholar, vol. 20, #2, April, 1989.
  • Handler ,M.S.Malcolm X cites role in U.N. Fight. New York Times, Jan 2, 1965; pg. 6, 1.
  • Montgomery, Paul L. Malcolm X a Harlem Idol on Eve of Murder Trial. New York Times, Dec 6, 1965; pg. 46, 1
  • Bigart, Homer. Malcolm X-ism Feared by Rustin. New York Times, Mar 4, 1965; pg. 15, 1
  • Arnold, Martin. Harlem is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites. New York Times, Feb 28, 1965; pg. 1, 2
  • Loomis, James. Death of Malcolm X. New York Times. Feb 27, 1965; pg. 24, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X and Muslims. New York Times, Feb 21, 1965; pg. E10, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X. New York Times, Feb 22, 1965; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Reports He Now Represents Muslim World Unit. New York Times, Oct 11, 1964; pg. 13, 1
  • Lelyveld, Joseph. Elijah Muhammad Rallies His Followers in Harlem. New York Times, Jun 29, 1964; pg. 1, 2
  • n/a. Malcolm X Woos 2 Rights Leaders. New York Times, May 19, 1964; pg. 28, 1
  • n/a. 1,000 In Harlem Cheer Malcolm X. New York Times, Mar 23, 1964; pg. 18, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Sees Rise in Violence. New York Times, Mar 13, 1964; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Disputes Nonviolence Policy. New York Times, Jun 5, 1963; pg. 29, 1
  • Apple, R.W. Malcolm X Silenced for Remarks On Assassination of Kennedy. New York Times, Dec 5, 1963; pg. 22, 1
  • Ronan, Thomas P. Malcolm X Tells Rally In Harlem Kennedy Fails to Help Negroes. New York Times, Jun 30, 1963; pg. 45, 1
  • n/a. 4 Are Indicted Here in Malcolm X Case. New York Times, Mar 11, 1965; pg. 66, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Seeks U.N. Negro Debate. Special to The New York Times; New York Times, Aug 13, 1964; pg. 22, 1

Levrioù

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  • Acuna, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
  • Als, Hilton. "The Women." (a chapter on Malcolm's mother)
  • Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
  • Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's "The Autobiography Of Malcolm X". New York: Dell, 1992.
  • Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder, 1967.
  • Breitman, George, and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder, 1976.
  • Brisbane, Robert. Black Activism. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1974.
  • Carew, Jan. Ghosts In Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1994.
  • Carson, Claybourne. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991.
  • Carson, Claybourne, et al. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. Malcolm X; the Man and His Times. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
  • Cleage, Albert B., and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
  • Collins, Rodney P. The Seventh Child. New York: Dafina; London: Turnaround, 2002.
  • Cone, James H. Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
  • Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University, 1998.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. On The Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University, 1996.
  • Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
  • Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Evanzz, Karl. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992.
  • Franklin, Robert Michael. Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment And Social Justice In African-American Thought. Minneapolis, MN : Fortress Press, 1990.
  • Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm X: As They Knew Him. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage, 1988.
  • Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  • Hampton, Henry, and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: Oral Histories from the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam, 1990.
  • Harding, Vincent, Robin D. G. Kelley, and Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, v. 9. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Hill, Robert A. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Karim, Benjamin, with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
  • Kondo, Baba Zak A. Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press, 1993.
  • Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
  • Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York, N.Y.: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.
  • Lomax, Louis. To Kill a Black Man. Los Angeles: Holloway House, 1968.
  • Lomax, Louis. When the Word is Given. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1963.
  • Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago, Third World Press 1972.
  • Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
  • Martin, Tony. Race First. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1976.
  • Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
  • Natambu, Kofi. The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002.
  • Perry, Bruce. Malcolm: The Life of A Man Who Changed Black America. New York: Station Hill, 1991.
  • Randall, Dudley and Margaret G. Burroughs, ed. For Malcolm; Poems on The Life and The Death of Malcolm X. Preface and Eulogy By Ossie Davis. Detroit: Broadside Press, 1967.
  • Rickford, Russell J. Betty Shabazz: A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2003.
  • Sales, William W. From Civil Rights To Black Liberation: Malcolm X And The Organization Of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
  • Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
  • Strickland, William, et al. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penguin Books, 1994.
  • Terrill, Robert. Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
  • Tuttle, William. Race Riot: Chicago, The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
  • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. San Francisco: Ramparts, 1972.
  • Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor. The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. London: Free Association Books, 1989.
  • Wood, Joe, ed. Malcolm X: In Our Own Image. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.

Malcolm X er sinema

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Spike Lee en deus savet ur film diwar e benn : sellit ouzh ar pennad Malcolm X (film).