Malcolm X (19251965) a oa ul lider politikel afroamerikan ha degemennour Nation of Islam. Anvet e oa ivez El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

Malcolm X yaouank (1964)

Ganet e oa dindan an anv Malcolm Little d'an 19 a viz Mae 1925 en Omaha e Nebraska. E touez breudeur e dad, Earl Little, e oa bet lazhet gant tud wenn hag unan eus e eontred a oa bet linchet. Sklaerik e oa kroc'hen ar Malcolm yaouank. Tennañ a rae an arouezenn-mañ d'e vamm Louise Helen, sklaer he liv peogwir e oa gwenn he zad.

Ur wech deuet en oad e teuas da vezañ felladenner, ha bac'het e voe en toull. D'ar mare-se en doe kaz ouzh ar bibl, Doue hag ar relijion dre-vras. Padal e glevas komz eus an Islam ha goude an toull-bac'h e voe gounezet d'ar feiz vuzulman. Emezelañ a reas ouzh Nation of Islam ha cheñch a reas e anv en "X", o nac'hañ e anv sklav. Graet e veze "diaouled" eus ar re wenn gantañ hag ar re zu a oa sañset o vont da ren ar bed en-dro hervezañ.

Dimeziñ a reas e 1958 gant Betty X (ganet Sanders). C'hwec'h merc'h o doe.

E miz Gwengolo 1960 e kejas gant Fidel Castro hag a oa e New-York o weladenniñ ar Broadoù Unanet.

Goude bezañ kuitaet Nation of Islam e 1964 e reas e Hajj, da lâret eo ar perc'herinded d'ar vMekka. Dont a reas da vezañ ur muzulman sunni. Gwellout a reas muzulmaned eus meur a ouenn ha dont a reas da soñjal e c'hallfe an Islam mont dreist ar c'hudennoù gouennel. Beajiñ a reas div wech en Afrika, e 1959 hag e 1964. Diwezhatoc'h, e 1964, ez eas da Vro-C'hall hag d'ar Rouantelezh-Unanet.

Drouklazhet e voe d'an 21 a viz C'hwevrer 1965 e Manhattan e New-York gant izili eus Nation of Islam moarvat.

Liammoù diabarzh kemmañ

Liammoù diavaez kemmañ

Pennadoù ha rentaoù-kont kemmañ

Levrlennadur kemmañ

gant Malcolm X kemmañ

  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: Grove Press, 1965.
  • By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1970.
  • The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Seaver Books, 1971.
  • Malcolm X: February 1965, The Final Speeches. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1992.
  • Malcolm X: The Last Speeches. Bruce Perry, ed. New York: Pathfinder, 1989.
  • Malcolm X Speaks Out (A Callaway BoundSound Book with Compact Disc). Nan Richardson, Catherine Chermayeff, and Antoinette White, eds. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1992.
  • Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Merit Publishers, 1965.
  • Notes from the Frontlines: Excerpts from the Great Speeches of Malcolm X (Compact Disc). BMG Music, 1992.
  • The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Morrow, 1968.
  • The Wisdom of Malcolm X (Compact Discs). Black Label, 1991.

Pennadoù-skrid kemmañ

  • Parks, Gordon. The White Devil's Day is Almost Over. Life, May 31, 1963.
  • Speakman, Lynn. Who Killed Malcolm X? The Valley Advocate, November 26, 1992, pp. 3-6.
  • Vincent, Theodore. The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X. The Black Scholar, vol. 20, #2, April, 1989.
  • Handler ,M.S.Malcolm X cites role in U.N. Fight. New York Times, Jan 2, 1965; pg. 6, 1.
  • Montgomery, Paul L. Malcolm X a Harlem Idol on Eve of Murder Trial. New York Times, Dec 6, 1965; pg. 46, 1
  • Bigart, Homer. Malcolm X-ism Feared by Rustin. New York Times, Mar 4, 1965; pg. 15, 1
  • Arnold, Martin. Harlem is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites. New York Times, Feb 28, 1965; pg. 1, 2
  • Loomis, James. Death of Malcolm X. New York Times. Feb 27, 1965; pg. 24, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X and Muslims. New York Times, Feb 21, 1965; pg. E10, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X. New York Times, Feb 22, 1965; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Reports He Now Represents Muslim World Unit. New York Times, Oct 11, 1964; pg. 13, 1
  • Lelyveld, Joseph. Elijah Muhammad Rallies His Followers in Harlem. New York Times, Jun 29, 1964; pg. 1, 2
  • n/a. Malcolm X Woos 2 Rights Leaders. New York Times, May 19, 1964; pg. 28, 1
  • n/a. 1,000 In Harlem Cheer Malcolm X. New York Times, Mar 23, 1964; pg. 18, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Sees Rise in Violence. New York Times, Mar 13, 1964; pg. 20, 1
  • n/a. Malcolm X Disputes Nonviolence Policy. New York Times, Jun 5, 1963; pg. 29, 1
  • Apple, R.W. Malcolm X Silenced for Remarks On Assassination of Kennedy. New York Times, Dec 5, 1963; pg. 22, 1
  • Ronan, Thomas P. Malcolm X Tells Rally In Harlem Kennedy Fails to Help Negroes. New York Times, Jun 30, 1963; pg. 45, 1
  • n/a. 4 Are Indicted Here in Malcolm X Case. New York Times, Mar 11, 1965; pg. 66, 1
  • Handler, M.S. Malcolm X Seeks U.N. Negro Debate. Special to The New York Times; New York Times, Aug 13, 1964; pg. 22, 1

Levrioù kemmañ

  • Acuna, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
  • Als, Hilton. "The Women." (a chapter on Malcolm's mother)
  • Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
  • Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's "The Autobiography Of Malcolm X". New York: Dell, 1992.
  • Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder, 1967.
  • Breitman, George, and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder, 1976.
  • Brisbane, Robert. Black Activism. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1974.
  • Carew, Jan. Ghosts In Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1994.
  • Carson, Claybourne. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991.
  • Carson, Claybourne, et al. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. Malcolm X; the Man and His Times. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
  • Cleage, Albert B., and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
  • Collins, Rodney P. The Seventh Child. New York: Dafina; London: Turnaround, 2002.
  • Cone, James H. Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
  • Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University, 1998.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. On The Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University, 1996.
  • Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
  • Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Evanzz, Karl. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992.
  • Franklin, Robert Michael. Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment And Social Justice In African-American Thought. Minneapolis, MN : Fortress Press, 1990.
  • Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm X: As They Knew Him. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
  • Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage, 1988.
  • Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  • Hampton, Henry, and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: Oral Histories from the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam, 1990.
  • Harding, Vincent, Robin D. G. Kelley, and Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, v. 9. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Hill, Robert A. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Karim, Benjamin, with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
  • Kondo, Baba Zak A. Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press, 1993.
  • Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
  • Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York, N.Y.: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.
  • Lomax, Louis. To Kill a Black Man. Los Angeles: Holloway House, 1968.
  • Lomax, Louis. When the Word is Given. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1963.
  • Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago, Third World Press 1972.
  • Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
  • Martin, Tony. Race First. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1976.
  • Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
  • Natambu, Kofi. The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002.
  • Perry, Bruce. Malcolm: The Life of A Man Who Changed Black America. New York: Station Hill, 1991.
  • Randall, Dudley and Margaret G. Burroughs, ed. For Malcolm; Poems on The Life and The Death of Malcolm X. Preface and Eulogy By Ossie Davis. Detroit: Broadside Press, 1967.
  • Rickford, Russell J. Betty Shabazz: A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2003.
  • Sales, William W. From Civil Rights To Black Liberation: Malcolm X And The Organization Of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
  • Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
  • Strickland, William, et al. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penguin Books, 1994.
  • Terrill, Robert. Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
  • Tuttle, William. Race Riot: Chicago, The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
  • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. San Francisco: Ramparts, 1972.
  • Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor. The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. London: Free Association Books, 1989.
  • Wood, Joe, ed. Malcolm X: In Our Own Image. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.

Malcolm X er sinema kemmañ

Spike Lee en deus savet ur film diwar e benn : sellit ouzh ar pennad Malcolm X (film).